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An instance of a computer program being executed in memory. It contains the program code and its current activity inside the same memory context.
Dynamic linking is the process of resolving at runtime a program's external function calls or dependencies. It happens at program startup or even while the program is running, as opposed to static li…
`Application Programming Interface` defines an interface that controls the interactions between a module and its users.
Disc Operating System, started as 16-bit OS for PC-AT/XT x86++ platforms
Smallest sequence of instructions that can be managed independently by an operating system scheduler. Threads share all the same memory-space layout within the same process.
Libraries are special computer programs made as a collection of functions which are meant to be called as external resources by multiple programs.
the Mach object file format is the standard executable format in iOS, Mac OS X, NeXTSTEP.
Extra information added to help for debugging purpose. It gathers information about each variable, type, procedure, etc, and link the assembly code to source code. Usual debugging-symbols formats incl…
Software-based simulation or emulation of a hardware platform (CPU and hardware devices). Famous examples of virtual-machines are VMware, QEMU, VirtualBox, Microsoft Hyper-V, ...
As assembler languages have no built-in primitives to handle arguments passing while starting a procedure, most of assembler programs and compiler do agree on calling conventions to describe how to em…
A dynamic instrumentation toolkit for developers, reverse-engineers, and security researchers.
An surjective function that maps a set of keys to a smaller data sets of a fixed length. Cryptographic hash-function are supposed to be practically impossible to reverse except by brute-force.
Reverse-engineering focused on the detection, and possibly the exploitation, of security vulnerabilities in software and computer systems.
Managing the risks over information and hardware to prevent unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction of data or disruption of service.
Binary diagnosis is the art of understanding the properties of an unknown binary stream of data without any additional information. Usually done as a last resort due to lack of related code to reverse…
Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation framework developed by Intel, which can hook and run arbitrary code into running processes, and is pluggable with user-written addons called Pintools. Pin targe…
Stack variables are variables declared on the stack. They are usually local to the block they were declared in.
LLDB is the debugger of the LLVM compiler infrastructure project.
angr is a Python binary analysis framework developed by the Computer Security Lab at UC Santa Barbara and their associated CTF team, Shellphish. project URL: https://github.com/angr/angr
Software managing the hardware part of the computer and providing an API for user-space software to access various services provided by hardware devices.
A software testing technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data to the inputs of a computer system, then monitoring for exceptions, failed assertions, or memory leaks.
Represent all the active functions in the program at a precise moment. It is composed of a chain of functions where each function has a caller (parent) and a callee (descendant), except for the `main`…
Reassembly is the process of assembling a set of instructions obtained through *disassembly* and which were certainly patched or modified.
A formatted unit of data carried by a network. This is the smallest unit of data that you can capture on packet-switched networks.
Can be either the division of a computer's primary memory into segments or sections, or the process in the operating system that maps virtual memory onto physical memory.
Machine code is the lowest level form of encoding instructions (binary). It is usually what the processor directly decodes and executes.