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Combination of executable code and data used to drive hardware devices and provide a first layer of software services prior to the operating system. Typical examples are BIOS, UEFI, the software running in a DSL router or a mobile phone.

3
votes
It appears as though the tool was never released. https://code.google.com/archive/p/frak/ has been empty since 2012, and merely points to http://frak.redballoonsecurity.com. http://frak.redballoonse …
answered Mar 25 '16 by Jason Geffner
5
votes
If you look at the file with a hex editor (or even a text editor), you can see that the first four bytes of the file are hsqs (0x68 0x73 0x71 0x73). If you then Google for hsqs, the first link explai …
answered Jul 14 '14 by Jason Geffner
1
vote
So, any ideas how I can trick the server into sending me a firmware update? Reverse engineer the desktop app, find where it's pulling your device's firmware number (probably 80 since that's … the current firmware version), and change it to a lower number before it encrypts that data and sends the query to the server. …
answered Feb 26 '15 by Jason Geffner
3
votes
There was a good talk at Recon 2012 on how to reverse engineer a program written for an unknown processor: Overview Slides P.S. The comments on that challenge were very enjoyable to read ;)
answered Oct 17 '15 by Jason Geffner
6
votes
Extracting the content of a hardware chip is known as "snarf"ing. (That term may help with your Google searches.) To snarf the contents of a chip, you need a ROM reader/programmer, such as one of the …
answered Jan 23 '14 by Jason Geffner
9
votes
The Garmin GCD file format is documented here, with some additional information here and here. Furthermore, it looks like somebody already wrote a tool (mirrored here) for handling and manipulating G …
answered Dec 21 '14 by Jason Geffner
1
vote
Assuming you only have the firmware and not the router hardware itself, the best approach would likely be to emulate the router's processor with QEMU and then debug it with IDA Pro. …
answered Feb 8 '14 by Jason Geffner
1
vote
Yes, either use IDA's FLAIR tools or use one of the tools mentioned here: Tools to work cooperatively on the same binary
answered Mar 5 '14 by Jason Geffner
2
votes
From http://www.nulltrace.org/2013/04/mips-bootstrapping.html: MIPS Bootstrapping Bootstrapping is the process of taking a CPU just out of reset, fetching and executing instructions seriall …
answered Oct 13 '15 by Jason Geffner
1
vote
0x1FF00FFE. Additionally, the bootloader configuration table for each chip specifies the address of the bootloader firmware. For example, for STM32L01xxx/02xxx chips, page 174 specifies that the the bootloader's firmware is a 4 KB chunk that begins at address 0x1FF00000. …
answered Jul 8 '16 by Jason Geffner