Questions tagged [radare2]

Opensource reverse engineering framework to disassemble, debug, analyze, manipulate binary files and more.

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27 views

what is the difference between pd $s and pdf @@f in Radare2

I've tried searching around on how to disassemble a whole binary. I found that pd $s and pdf @@f are the 2 commands suggested most widely. I could understand the working of the latter, but I don't see ...
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187 views

How can I find an external function code correctly in Ghidra and Radare2?

This is a code to call an external function(get_random_name) in the main function push {fp, lr} add fp, sp, 4 sub sp, sp, 0x1d8 str r0, [fp, -0x1d8] str r1, [fp, -0x1dc] sub r3, fp, 0x44 ...
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What are “covrage and ”codesz" in radare2?

[0x00009124]> a fcns 0 xrefs 0 calls 0 strings 126 symbols 74 imports 27 covrage 347 codesz 27543 percent 8% Sorry, this is a newbie question, but what are covrage and codesz? How can I ...
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radare2 unable to run a binary file

I've been trying to debug a binary file in radare2 but it throws me this error. $ r2 -d bin Killing child process 1688 due to an error Killing child process 1689 due to an error [...
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25 views

Function name from Ordinal number in Radare2

When disassembling dll or exe files in radare2, I sometimes encounter function calls via ordinals (call sub. mfc140u.dll_Ordinal_2246). As I understand it, the problem is that there is no pdb file for ...
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28 views

Change return value of a boolean function in arm library

I have an android library (arm cpu) that have a function named GetEisLinkWithDfr() that have a single line that returns boolean value of "true", and I want it to return a value of "...
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1answer
50 views

`af` does not seem to find all functions in Radare2

The disassembly at the entry point looks like this: : ;-- entry0: : ;-- _mainCRTStartup: : ;-- eip: : 0x004014e0 83ec0c sub esp, 0xc : ...
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1answer
67 views

Radare2 does not reload payload correctly

I'm new to Radare2 so i'm trying to learn it by doing some basic buffer overflows. My problem is that, when i try to load some payloads, the stack seems to fake them in some differents ways... For ...
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27 views

Can I find out what methods are being swizzled in runtime?

I have an obfuscated dylib injecting into a process in macOS to swizzle objc methods. Obviously I can decompile it to check what it is hooking, but its heavily obfuscated. Hence, can I find out what ...
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81 views

`af` vs `afr` in Radare2

I am trying to understand the difference between analyze functions and analyze functions recursively in Radare2. Given a code snippet like this: #include <stdio.h> void b() { printf("b ...
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Radare2 - “/c pointer; offset” command not giving expected response to search instances of the same pair of similar instructions

I am trying to find an offset IOSURFACEROOTUSERCLIENT_VTAB from an iOS kext(IOSurface) using radare2 and there is a need to use the command "/c pointer; offset" as per the instructions in ...
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79 views

What does anal.hasnext actually do?

I am trying to understand anal.hasnext control flow configuration option of Radare. The documentation says "Continue analysis after each function. Forces to find a function, after the end of a ...
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27 views

Saving a breakpoint in radare2 loses the format string

Good day to you all. I'm new to radare2 and reverse engineering in general. Debugging a small crackme. I want to save breakpoints. Initially, everything is fine: db* > bps and load breakpoints: ...
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28 views

How to reverse engineer structs in radare2?

Is there any way to indentify structs in radare2? when i tried to look them, they look like normal variables, i seen people using td and tl command but I don't know how to use them. If you know please ...
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Radare2 is showing weird disassembly as compared to disassembly of gcc

Today i was playing around with c code in r2. I compiled a file which had the following code. #include <stdio.h> int main(){ int a=9; float b=1.1; int sum; sum = ...
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Interpret radare2 help

So I run radare2 from the command line with r2 - and attempt to display the help with the ? command. I read this line which says: ?[??][expr] Help or evaluate math expression I am not ...
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62 views

Why won't Radare2 display main's paramethers of a 32bit ELF on a 64 bit machine?

I am new to reversing and currently trying to follow this tutorial, in which the binary provided was compiled on a 32 bit machine hence the file is a "ELF 32-bit LSB executable". It runs ...
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99 views

Golang program reversing with Radare2

I'm trying to understand how to reverse golang programs with radare2. In order to practice, i create a minimal program in Go: package main import "fmt" func main() { fmt.Println("...
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radare2 can't see error/signal messages

I'm in visual mode on the debug screen. I'm stepping through some function code with the 'F7' shortcut key, when I hit a part of the code that yields an error or some kind of message, the message text ...
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55 views

Control flow graph of entire binary file

Is it possible to get the control flow graph of the entire binary file using any disassembler? IDA Pro generates the CFG for each function. Can we use it to get the CFG of the entire program?
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77 views

Can't modify string in radare2 (.rodata section)

I was following the response to this question to change the string of an elf executable. No matter how many times I try, I just can't modify the string. I notice that probably the issue lies in the ...
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124 views

main function not found in GCC compiled code

I'm trying to learn reverse engineering using Radare2. For this I compiled a hello world program with GCC on Ubuntu (version: gcc (Ubuntu 9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) 9.3.0). #include <stdio.h> int ...
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“rabin2 -E” and “afll” no output for an exe file

$ rabin2 -I test.exe arch x86 baddr 0x400000 binsz 3229424 bintype pe bits 32 canary false retguard false class PE32 cmp.csum 0x0031d950 ...
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1answer
221 views

Ghidra + IDA cant detect a string but Radare2 can

Im new to reverse engineering, and ive trying Ghidra, IDA (Freeware) and Radare2 with a simple CrackMe, the problem is, both Ghidra and IDA couldnt detect a string while Radare2 (Using Cutter GUI) ...
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36 views

Bypassing debugger detection in radar2

I'm currently doing a reversee engineering challenge. I disassembled the ELF binary in radare2, however the binary checks whether its attached to a debugger. How can i bypass this detection ? Thanks ...
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61 views

radare2: disassemble functions of an executable compiled with gcc

I'm studying binary exploitation from CTF challenges. When I download a binary I don't have any problem to disassemble a function using the pdf command in radare2. However, If I compile a C program ...
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1answer
67 views

Getting memory address of particular bytes in radare2

in pwnlib there is a possibility to search for particular bytes, e.g. as follows for 0x66 byte: print(next(p.elf.search(b'f'))) which in turn results in the following output: 4195268 Having this ...
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What do you think is the optimum environment for reverse engineering dynamically-linked aarch64 Golang binaries developed in Alpine Linux?

Direct quote from Golang's website: "GDB does not understand Go programs well. The stack management, threading, and runtime contain aspects that differ enough from the execution model GDB expects ...
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1answer
158 views

Crackme assistance - change input of a function

Just as a preface, this is a crackme from https://hack.ainfosec.com/. I know you can submit these as part of a job app, I have no intentions of doing that. Very happy to have a job in a related, but ...
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30 views

how do I use Remote Binary Protocol in cutter

how do I use Remote Binary Protocol I tried to connect to gdbserver through the normal method but it would just hang and not connect. I let it go like that for 1 hour
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69 views

How to debug a shared library with radare2?

I am currently trying to pick up radare2 but I am struggling on a little hurdle.. I am given a shared library, let's call it shared.so. I managed to perform some static analysis using $ r2 shared.so ...
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84 views

How to change local_184h to skip past jump commands with Radare2?

I am trying to solve a CTF challenge but I am very much out of my depth and nothing online is helping me very much. This is what I'm working with currently | 0x55b3fd508a41 4889e5 ...
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40 views

Check indirect call function in Radare2

I'm working on a tool to construct control flow graph (CFG) from binary code (x86). For comparison purpose, I need to compare our tool with radare2. How could we determine if an indirect call function ...
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1answer
217 views

ARM binary dissasembly, Hopper works, Ghidra and Radare2 don't for some functions

I'm disassembling a large ARM binary and I see that for some functions both Ghidra and Radare2 appear to fail to disassemble certain functions whereas Hopper works for those same functions In Ghidra - ...
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1answer
193 views

The Graph view in Cutter is empty

Following this question, I'm trying to figure out how cscript.exe parses the .wsh Windows Script Host control files. First I tried WinDbg, but Radare2-Cutter seems like a much nicer software TBH. What ...
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48 views

How can I rename location in radare2?

In radare2 I would like to be able to rename a node in the graph view. I though setting a flag to the entry of the graph node would also change its title, but the address of the nodes still shows ...
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35 views

Radare2: Running executable from a specific point

I am using radare2 to reverse engineer a standard crackme executable. I have obtained the password, but now I need use the program to read & print a restricted file to which the executable has ...
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1answer
63 views

How does radare2 create its memory layout?

Firstly Hello, this is my first post on this forum even though im reading alot here. Im trying to get into reversing and Low-Level stuff in general lately, and im a bit stuck right here. I did read ...
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30 views

How can I have an interactive r2pipe session?

I am trying to make an interactive tutorial. It uses radare2 with r2pipe as its reverse engineering toolkit. I want my users to be able to use the visual mode through r2pipe. In order for the visual ...
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1answer
31 views

Running radare command on each line of the output of another command

Say, I have a command in radare which produces multiple input, say afl. I can run it and extract many addresses: [0x5579ca2e2196]> afl~[0] 0x5579ca2e2060 0x5579ca2e4fe0 0x5579ca2e2090 ...
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39 views

No instruction in main function when debugging with winedbg

I'v try to debugging windows PE file under Linux. winedbg --gdb --no-start a.exe ─╯ 00bc:00c0: create process 'Z:\home\coolder\a.exe'/0x1106b8 @...
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71 views

Using angr/radare2 to estimate values given chunks of assembly

I'm currently using radare2 in order to construct a simple CFG, each block/node in that graph is composed of one or more assembly instructions, I wish to estimate the value of specific register or ...
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1answer
91 views

radare2 - radare2 doesn't display string value

I have some rare cases with radare2. when I try to display all string using "iz" it does the job. but when I do "pdf" or "pd" I can't see actual value of string: I see ...
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1answer
92 views

Finding mapped memory page flags in Radare2

I have a memory dump of notepad.exe. Radare's iS to print sections gives me the mapped files (executable and it's dll's) as well as the many sections simply marked 'Memory_Section', which from what I ...
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1answer
128 views

Radare2 - what does dot mean in disassembly

I've just started using radare2 and I've noticed a dot when I tried to disassamble one on my programs. The output is: 0x00000000 48b841000000. movabs rax, 0x41 I understand that 0x48 is the REX ...
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142 views

How to find DOS Header and PE Header with an entry point in Radare2?

I am currently doing byte extraction from PE files using Radare2. I know how to find the byte sequence for Dos Header and PE Header when there is no entry point and the start is defaulted to 0x0. But ...
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50 views

Results of radare2 are not correct

I am using radare2 to analyze libpng_amd64.so.1.6.34, commands are as follows: r2 = r2pipe.open(binary_file) r2.cmd('aaa') funcs = r2.cmdj('aflj') len(funcs) is 461, but the number of functions got ...
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95 views

How do I use vi keybindings at the command line in Radare2?

The Radare2 command line (I believe it's called "interactive mode"?) allows bringing back history and editing it with the arrow keys. However, I prefer to use vi/vim keybindings for this. How do I ...
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2answers
70 views

How can I change the default input radix to hexadecimal in Radare2?

Frequently when I use Radare2 I work mostly in hexadecimal. This means I'm constantly having to remember to type 0x in front of addresses, which is different from the machine-language monitors I'm ...
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1answer
167 views

Modify value to pass jump and print a message with Radare2

I have a problem with understanding, why after modifying variable var_4h and passing positively through jne at 0x000006c3 I still cannot see the message. I use radare2 In debug mode, just before cmp ...

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