Questions tagged [functions]

A sequence of instructions performing a basic task packaged as a unit in a program.

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Tracing all functions in executable conditionally, to find function of interest

I would like to alter the behavior of some executable (in my case, a videogame). One way of doing this is to hook function calls (e.g., a function like Player::ReceiveDamage) and adjust parameters/...
tcpie's user avatar
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How to call unexported function in a third party DLL while having its PDB?

I'm new to reverse engineering and recently met with a problem: I have the dll and pdb of a debug version third party module, but I don't have its source codes. Now I want to write a piece of C++ code ...
Nekomiya Kasane's user avatar
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WebAssembly Unity base64 decipher

When in game (taming.io) going to leaderboard and searching a player id lets say: 1. It renders player data retrieved from here just fine: https://account.taming.io/player?id=1 If I type this url (get ...
Ion Iascerinschi's user avatar
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Function return in machine code (by platform/compiler)

I am asking this question to gather a knowledge base. I know in x86-64, a machine code function can have only one function return, i.e., ret instruction. I know it can be compiler (GCC, clang, etc) ...
Mustakimur Khandaker's user avatar
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Cutter shows addresses relative to stack but not rbp. How to change it?

Look at the first image: Here what I get is var void *buf @ stack - 0x28. But I'm watching a tutorial there his Cutter shows like this: var void *buf @ rbp - 0x20. How can I change cutter to appear ...
NobinPegasus's user avatar
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Log functions called in IDA Pro?

When I run an exe in IDA how could I log which functions were called into a text file? log.txt: call func1 call func2 call func1 call func1 Not worried about indirect calls. This is for differential ...
Eva4684's user avatar
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How can I jump to the start/end of a function in x64dbg?

I'm currently debugging a program using x64dbg, and I'm wondering how to quickly jump to the start or end (prologue/epilogue) of a function while I'm in the middle of it. I couldn't find this ...
MendelG's user avatar
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split function argument from IDA's hints

Suppose I have a function, I know that the first 4 arguments come with fixed registers. _BYTE *__fastcall foo(__int64 a1, _QWORD *a2, unsigned int a3, char a4, _QWORD *a5) For the fifth one, if I ...
anonymous bear's user avatar
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which command in windbg to use to display the struct in function argument

The struct looks like this. typedef struct _RTL_DYNAMIC_HASH_TABLE_ENUMERATOR { struct _RTL_DYNAMIC_HASH_TABLE_ENTRY HashEntry; struct _LIST_ENTRY* CurEntry; struct _LIST_ENTRY* ChainHead; ULONG ...
anonymous bear's user avatar
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How to reverse an import function?

I'm reversing windows .sys file and an import function RtlLookupEntryHashTable appears in my target functions. I want to know the pseudocode of it. How to achieve this? .text:00000001C00218C2 ...
anonymous bear's user avatar
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How to speed up finding a function from pseudocode in IDA?

I have a function with the pseudocode of __int64 __fastcall sub_7FF7067A01F0(__int64 a1, __int64 a2, unsigned int a3) { if ( qword_7FF709F91498 ) return (*(__int64 (__fastcall **)(ID2D1Geometry *...
CoolNite's user avatar
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Calling a function with a variable number of args from a proxy DLL

The program I'm messing with has builtin logging. Using a proxy DLL, I managed to activate it by calling the right functions from the real DLL. However, I got stuck at using the actual logging ...
mindoverflow's user avatar
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How to define "code" variable type in Ghidra

Of all the confusing parts of Ghidra, I'd like to ask about the "code" keyword. A similar question was asked here. However, I am not asking what the keyword is, but how to interpret/define ...
Luke Dunn's user avatar
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I don't find the body of a function that I called in the main function

I have created a very simple x86 console program that uses Visual Studio 2019 compiler to sum 2 numbers just to see how is the program be after disassembly but I found something unclear to me. // C++ #...
Lion King's user avatar
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How do I find a function and find out what it does using reverse engineering?

I am attempting to find a function in a specific game. Is there any way that, using the assembly code I get from decompiling the game in either IDA or x64dbg, I can locate a function I am specifically ...
CoolNite's user avatar
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The way to determine how the decompiled constructor is structured

I have the following constructor decompiled by Ghidra, i.e. Game. I know some of the functions, which are part of that constructor. And thus I have created my interpretation of that structure. But I ...
Irbis77's user avatar
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Branching in arm assembly

This is an example assembly code: function0() 0x0.mov r0, #1 0x8.mov r1, #20 0x10.mov r2, #6 0x18.cmp r1, #16 0x20.b function1 function1() 0x28.cmp r0, #1 0x30.b functionX functionX(...
Silent's user avatar
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Function Arguments/Name on Radare and IDA

I am starting with reverse engineering and Radare and I'm facing the following problem, on IDA Free I see the following code: mov ecx, 11h lea edi, [esp+1208h+StartupInfo] rep stosd lea ...
secjav's user avatar
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does mov DWORD PTR 32[rsp], 5 means mov DWORD PTR [rsp+32], 5?

I am learning about windows x64 calling convention, where the first four arguments are passed to registers and left arguments are passed through the stack. To see it, I checked the assembly of the ...
Mr. rc's user avatar
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finding a not-so-straightforward game's function

I am working on Mad Max game [ APEX engine ] I do my best to explain the situation. so my target executes function like this: there are commands like " call [eax+XX] " or " call RX &...
shetal's user avatar
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main function not found in GCC compiled code

I'm trying to learn reverse engineering using Radare2. For this I compiled a hello world program with GCC on Ubuntu (version: gcc (Ubuntu 9.3.0-17ubuntu1~20.04) 9.3.0). #include <stdio.h> int ...
martsc1's user avatar
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Is it possible to make a dynamic memory allocated .data segment to static in a file?

Sorry if this is a dumb question I'm new to assembly. Basically I want to modify a function in a .exe file to return with a different data, but my issue is that the memory location of the data segment ...
Sejt's user avatar
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Cannot disassemble exported functions

I want to disassemble a function from Kernel32.dll to see what it does, but every single function I try looks like this in the decompiler: Function: jmp ds:Function_0 Where is the function? ...
Carol Victor's user avatar
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Reverse engineering mode X VGA function(s)

I'm trying to reverse engineer an old DOS game. At the moment I'm stuck at a function that implements some functionality of VGA running in mode X. My issue is that any of the available sample codes on ...
Mentulatus's user avatar
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Converting rep movsd to to C without memcpy

So I am currently in the stages of creating binexact version of functions in decompiled code. I noticed that in this function the rep movsd is called and logically this is translated as Qmemcpy/memcpy ...
LUser's user avatar
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Why some functions in IDA can't be searched

I don't know why but I noticed, on some program I am reversing, that in a section named .bss, there functions and I can't find them through the regular search, why is that. For example, I wanted to ...
E235's user avatar
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How to view the functions of a loaded library in x64dbg

I am working on a packed file with UPX. In one of the lines it calls to the value of the address 0xF5222C which is: 0x778057c0. The debugger auto-completes it to kernel32.LoadLibraryA. Where can I ...
E235's user avatar
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How to track output parameters in disassembly?

I have the following disassembly of winload!CmpFindNlsData function and I need to check the output parameters of this function. P.S.: CmpFindNLSData(int a1<eax>, int a2, PUNICODE_STRING ...
Bhavya Singh's user avatar
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Having hard time analyzing stripped code

This is my first time doing RE on a statically linked and stripped binary with ghidra. And I'm having a really hard time analyzing what function does what just by looking the decompiled code present ...
Jimmy.D's user avatar
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Removing/bypassing a BIOS whitelist

I am trying to bypass or erase the BIOS whitelist on my Thinkpad T440p. So far I've used flashrom and a soic8 clip to dump the bios to a bios.img file made another dump and compared with diff bios....
BraveSentry's user avatar
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Reversing Pyarmor Discussion

Anyone messing around with pyarmor recently? For those of you that are unaware of what pyarmor is, its a protection software that is to help obfuscate and protect your software. Heres an image of what ...
Jimmy Hankey's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Ghidra error when edit main signature function

I'm new to ghidra. I download the easy_reverse from crackme.one and open the executable file in ghidra. When I'm trying to edit the main function signature I get an error: Can't parse name: argv[]. I ...
Nirgn's user avatar
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text_mn in Radare2 --> Meaning?

I compiled some source code and extracted functions with Radare2 (afj). Often I get a function with "sym..text_mn" function name/ symbol. The other functions are named correctly. What does this ...
sandlord1's user avatar
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Understanding obscure function names [duplicate]

I have seen functions like this before in disassembly but don't have a clue what they are. Their names are extremely confusing. Would someone be able to explain what these are?
Chase Opsahl's user avatar
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1 answer
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Extracting functions of .obj file (compiled by myself with Visual Studio 19) --> extracts wrong data

How can I find only real functions not data garbage like section..debug_S_105 ? * I need to collect function data (assembler code) of Open Source C++ Files which I compile with Visual Studio 19 (sln ...
sandlord1's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
576 views

How to extract static API sequences of a PE file?

How does one extract the static API sequences of a PE file? I don't mean the imports listed in the imports segment. I am currently using different RE tools like Ghidra, IDA Pro, and Binary Ninja. ...
nidorinas's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Function's signature with unmatching parameters

I have following code disassembled by ghidra: PUSH EBX PUSH dword ptr [EBP + param_1] wchar_t * _Format for swprintf PUSH u_%s\%s_0040eb88 size_t ...
M. Kalter's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
715 views

Call function by ebp

When I looking at exe file with Ida I see call dword ptr [ebp -70p] What is that? Why this function calling by ebp and not call sub_0xabcd How can I know which function is that to enter to this ...
ffz37097.eanok.com's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Dump value of register using frida

I'm new with frida and came to this problem. I have dll that I want to reverse engeneer(there are no debug symbols). Specifically I want to dump some data from a function. So I have this big function ...
Ojs's user avatar
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1 answer
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'local call from' in x64dbg

In OllyDbg there was a thing called "local call from xxx,xxx,xxx,xxx ... " which helps me know from where a function is being called in the entire module. Does such a feature exist in x64dbg as well?
zerocool's user avatar
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Is it possible to call external functions?

I was wondering, assuming I wrote a dll in C++ and could access another application's memory, is it possible to call outside functions if I had the address?
XxMulti GamerxX's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
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Is it possible to build an equivalent function just looking at the input and output of the original function?

Imagine you are reverse engineering a software. This software uses a library, which is obfuscated and encrypted. The library contains a function, lets call it secret_function. This function is a pure ...
Rocco Mancin's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Is there a way to modify number of reads/writes to/from a memory address?

I haven't had any luck researching this, so I thought I would inquire here! Let's assume I have found a memory address housing a value of interest. Using a program like Cheat Engine, I look for ...
dsasmblr's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
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How to see all functions that called with debugger

I debugging with IDA, and I want to see/print all the functions that get called. In the functions window I see over than 1000 functions. So I want to see which functions are called when I press ...
Keystone's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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Get interface definition of undocumented COM objects

I have started exploring COM objects, initially I got to it from UAC bypass methods but I guess my question is general. The general question is: How can I get from (elevated) CLSID in the registry to ...
Anton.P's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Batch rename functions knowing their prototypes in IDA Pro

I have a long list of mappings from IDA function names (sub_??????) to known function prototypes. The prototype is complete, I mean it contains the return type, the name as in the code and the ...
JavierG's user avatar
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Is it possible to get the formula out of a blackbox using neural network

I have a so. library which I know the "C" interface but I don't have access to the source code only the disassembled code which is hard to understand at least for me. I know the input parameters (...
foobar12's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Finding RegisterNatives function calls in JNI_OnLoad's assembly code

My goal is to see what a native method m does. It doesn't have a direct counterpart in the so file, but I've found the JNI_OnLoad function's ARM assembly code. It starts with AAAAAAAA <JNI_OnLoad@@...
Zirui Wang's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the difference between xrefs and stack trace?

In IDA, I can see what calls a specific function by looking at the xrefs to it, or by looking 1 step back on stack trace. What are the differences between them? How does IDA know what the stack ...
Jonert6544's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
936 views

IDA function never called and only cross-referenced as data

When I press the X key (list x-refs) on a function (sub_xyz) to see which functions call it, I only saw dd offset sub_xyz twice, with no call sub_xyz instructions. There is no another place that ...
Keystone's user avatar
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