Questions tagged [encodings]

A mapping of a given code to values or semantics. Guessing the meaning of an encoding requires a lot of trials but some encoding are standard and can be guessed quite easily.

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Invalid "Variation" of a base64 encoding

I am starring at the following which looks like base64 but not quite: t=base64.b64decode('gAKrEgADAAFwEgACAAFwEgACAAhmYWlybmVzcxIACQAGcmVzdWx0B0ANMzMzMzMzAAZudW1iZXIHQHdO+...
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Encoding scheme identification of the following communication message

I'm trying to RE an app for educational purposes. So here is the behavior of the app. When the app starts, it communicate with a server in plain tcp and based on those tcp messages, it either work as ...
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Reverse engineering what seems to be a checksum used for RS232 packets

I will try to be as concise as possible: the issue is, I'm trying to develop a custom application for a dielectric tester. I have access to the original program, which was made some 20 years ago or ...
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Encrypted properties files in asset folder of android application

I'm trying to reverse engineer an Android application. The goal is to obtain a secret from the apk. After decompiling the application, I found some interesting files in the assets directory. The files ...
1 vote
1 answer
110 views

2-byte checksum

I cannot figure out what checksum is used for the following communication. As I understand, 450D is the “stop” part. It doesn't change no matter what. And the two bytes before 450D are the “checksum”. ...
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How to identify the type of Manchester encoding

I have packets of unknown protocol, wireless send at 868MHz, FM. Chosen high frequency as "1" the demodulated signal of 82 Bit looks like that: ...
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89 views

433MHz Protocol: Unknown Three-Symbol-Encoding within the OOK data

Reverse engineering the protocol of a remote-controlled wall socket (433MHz On-Off-Keying) revealed an embedded pattern which apparently uses three symbols (besides 0s). Symbol A = 000001 Symbol B = ...
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Decoding API response of unknown encoding?

I'm using Proxyman to inspect the api requests of an app I use. Most of the data is returned in plain JSON blobs but there is one response which is returning data encoded/encrypted. How can I go ...
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Decoding a stream of bytes in audio form (Teenage Engineering OP-1 & PO-33)

I have a device that stores and transmits data using audio (Teenage Engineering's OP-1 and PO-33). I'm trying to figure out how I can turn it into a byte stream to try to decode it. Below is an ...
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137 views

QR-Codes of Temial-Teamachine

I have a tea-machine that reads QR-Codes and brews the tea accordingly. I want to generate my own codes. I have the following codes (and more): Copy/Paste of the C-Column L7UMQRQCQAZBD OYXPVAANAB4ZE ...
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Unknown binary format of a b64-encoded list of doubles

While reverse engineering a database middleware. This is presumably encoding a list of double or float values with Base64 encoding and then compressing it. Via zlib.decompress() I was able to ...
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Decoding Game data

I am very new to this whole business so please bear with me. Goal: Am trying to decode data from a post request from game to server starting with Q0. Most of the game data is encoded in Base64, but ...
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Can you get the error-correction level of a QR code?

You can get the version number of a QR (1-40) by checking the dimensions of the QR, but is there a way to get the error-correction level that was used to generate the QR code? Trying to reverse ...
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How to retrieve the encryption key from a dll file?

I have a dll file that makes an http post request to a webserver , request looks something like this : UmdUsFrEB3wGMuuAz1Znywuedx6+...
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The Logic Of Incremental Data on Serial Communication Encoding

These are the serial communication reverse values. I am trying to understand the logic behind this. I am pretty sure that 2 bytes represent 1 byte(high byte and low byte), values are correct. I tried ...
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What encoding is this?

This is a picture of the encoded code. I'm just wondering what is the encoding that it is using.
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831 views

How to find encrypted strings in an executable?

I am trying to reverse engineer an executable. I am using Process explorer to dump all strings present in the exe image, and from the process's RAM when it is running. The two dumps return a ...
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775 views

CyberChef Challenge #21

The challenge data/input is: ...
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993 views

How to convert hexadecimal values to 16-bit Unicode in IDA Pro 7.5?

The context: For a student project which goal is to make us learn reverse engineering and how to use IDA Pro, we have to reverse engineer the APT28 hospitality malware (as described in this blog post: ...
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Encoding of 64-bit double

I'm in the process of reverse engineering a USB driver, and I'm having problems finding a way to decode the binary representation of double values. The values don't seem to be encoded in IEEE-754 ...
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Decoding messages sent/received by Python websocket client

I am using the websocket module for my client in python3, and I am trying to troubleshoot some errors I am getting that lead to the client disconnecting after seemingly random intervals. When I ...
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3 answers
902 views

Reverse engineering a partially known binary format

I have files with binary data, the format description of them is very vague and incomplete. E.g., it states that records start with header byte, like (hex) FA, followed by datetime (accurate down to ...
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227 views

Decode bitmaps from Director .dxr files

I'm trying to extract bitmaps from an old Macromedia Director protected .dxr file. I was able to find some information about the file structure from here (it turns out to be a XFIR container, the ...
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64 views

Looking for encoding of SVG data

I have some SVG images stored in a database; but I am not able to find out which encoding is used. Unfortunately, I don't have the exact SVG plain text available. The given examples "probably&...
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Password evaluated from the sum of ASCII letters

After analyzing the code, I have been able to understand and recreate the algorithm used to check if the password the binary takes is correct, but don't know how to solve it (or at least can't think ...
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Trying to decode the Ontario Driver's License #

**The Ontario Driver's License follows the below format:** LXxxx-FFFMY-YMMDD Where: L is the first letter of your last name X is a numeric encoding of the last name (See Chart 1 below) xxx is a ...
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What kind of integer obfuscation is this?

I'm looking at the network traffic of a game submitting the user's score to the high-score server. The score value seems to be obfuscated in some way. The score is a non-negative integer, and not more ...
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What is the URL format for Google Trends?

When you search for the search term Tesla or AOL you get the following URLs: https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?geo=US&q=Tesla But, for the automobile maker, you get: https://trends.google....
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Determining the encoding of an unknown image format [closed]

I'm trying to reverse engineer a REST API and there is an endpoint that delivers images. Some of them are jpegs but other ones look like they're base64 encoded, except they don't appear to be, as they ...
2 votes
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The questions about li instruction

When reversing a MIPS binary using IDA Pro, I have 2 questions. The source code is as follows. int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { int m = 1; int n = 5; printf("sum = %d\n", m+n); } ....
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Which JSON object compact binary serialization is this?

I am trying to reverse engineer an unknown JSON binary serialization format found in a request-response pair between a mobile app, and a server. Does anyone recognize this? I've attached the first ...
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Encoding method of float

I'm reversing this game and got stuck. To make it simple, You have some amount of coins in the game (float or double) and you can spend it on some things. I started sniffing network traffic and ...
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401 views

How to wire up a rotary encoder with a "0v" connection?

I have a servo motor with rotary encoder salvaged from an old scanner. I'm trying to figure out how to re-use it in a DIY CNC machine. By reading through the engineering manual from the original ...
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276 views

How to identify the encoding performed on this string

I have an old application that stores the username and password in plaintext but encoded by an unknown encoding algorithm to me, it seams like base64, but I think it's not, It seams that any word ...
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Reverse Engineering a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) encoding

Not sure if this is the right place so please point me to the right place if needed. I have an input of a VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) number with 17 characters, each character is either an ...
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604 views

Is there any way to change the encoding of an exe file?

I have an exe file and it will browse the xml, or txt files to display this exe file. And the characters only display the exact language of that country when I switch the language of the computer to ...
3 votes
2 answers
786 views

Translating a Korean Exclusive PS2 game ~ hangeul encoding?

I got my hands on a copy of Mystic Nights, a survival horror game for the PS2 realeased exclusively in Korea. The game's text is all in Hangeul (Korean writting system). I extracted the ISO and ...
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String Encoding and Decoding Method

so I came across the following string encoding method in python. def encode(the_string): encoded_string = '' rotations = ord(the_string[-1]) + 5 for i in range(0, len(the_string)): ...
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How should I approach reverse engineering this text encoding?

So I'm trying to hack the translation from the PS4 version of a game into the Vita version. The script files were conveniently uncompressed, and I was able to drop them in and have it working without ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Is there a standard character encoding that is ASCII minus control characters?

I came across some unusual strings in some embedded SH2A code I'm analyzing.... 11 53 54 00 53 55 4E 44 41 59 00 4F 46 00 2E 4F 56 45 4D 42 45 52 . S T . S U N D A Y . O F . . O V E ...
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Find out string encoding/shift of proprietary binary file format

I'm trying to reverse-engineer a proprietary file format to be able to extract certain strings from files in this format. I have the application, that writes the files, at hand. By trial-and-error I ...
9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Need help to reverse engineer a dog collar transmitter

I have a Petrainer PET998DRU shock collar (similar to this one) that got partially chewed up by the dog it is supposed to train. I salvaged it to the point where I have the following buttons: Mode (...
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How to identify known encryption algorithm?

I reverse an .exe file with IDA. I see a function that appears to be encrypting something by generating some random numbers. It there any tool to identify if it is a known encryption algorithm?
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Reading from text file and printing it in IDA Pro

I have a text.txt file and I want to read it and print its content in the Output Window of IDA Pro (Free version). I wrote an .idc script as follows: #include <idc.idc> static main() { ...
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How can I generate the recovery password on a legacy system (Original company is out of business) running on my local machine?

I'm attempting to use a legacy systems recovery feature that typically required calling/faxing a company that is no longer around. Basically, the system was designed to go into a recovery mode and ...
1 vote
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187 views

CD-ROM CIRC encoder

I'm studying the principles of data storage CD-ROM At the moment I understand structures of sectors, F1 frames, F3 frames, subcode channels. But I just can not understand the principle of forming F2 ...
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Help with a packed date format

I've came across what appears to be a date format from a legacy database application. I don't have access to the code that generated it, just have examples corresponding to certain Holiday messages. ...
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768 views

Reverse engineer CAN-Bus checksum

I am trying to figure out a checksum algorithm. D1 to D6 is data, D7 is a counter obviously and byte 8 must be a CRC, but I didnt have any idea on how to build it. Tried to check if it fits any ...
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Need some pointers to decode/decrypt/unobfuscate JSON files (updated with related scripts)

I am very new to this whole business so please bear with me. Goal My goal is to read JSON data from a game. Since I do not know what kind of information will/will not be useful, here are some of ...
1 vote
3 answers
741 views

Find out how a program is reading a file

I'd like to manually "pull out" information of files of a specific file format. Needless to say, they were encoded in some form or another - I couldn't access a "plaintext" version of them. However, ...