Questions tagged [embedded]

Refer to devices with scarcity of resources (energy, memory, cpu power, ...). It gather any consumer electronics (radio receivers, television sets, MP3 players, video recorders, DVD players, digital cameras, camcorders, personal computers, video game consoles, telephones and mobile phones, tablets).

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3answers
106 views

Reverse Engineering RS232 protocol misterious last byte

I have an old water purifier system that consists of a PDA and a main board (I think the ic is a Renesas) that communicate by RS232, I need to know the protocol they use to communicate in order to ...
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1answer
69 views

Reverse engineering MCU with “poor” datasheet

I'm reverse engineering a chinese MCU. The datasheet for this chip is pretty poor, they left out important things like memory map, block diagrams ecc... so i got stuck. This is what i've done: I got ...
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1answer
61 views

Can a secondary UART be used to access the MCU?

I have a gamepad with a Chinese ShanWan BM-729 SWQP179 22 MCU which is most likely a clone but i didn't manage to find any info on it. The board is also lacking information like serial pins and the ...
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26 views

Does IDA Support Segment Shadows/Aliases

Is it possible in IDA to map a single segment (block of code/data) to multiple addresses in a single address space (a much more limited solution to the problem would be to specify how many address ...
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1answer
62 views

Protected shell in embedded linux

When I run telnetd -l /bin/sh on an embedded Linux device and use Putty to telnet to it, the provided shell is /bin/psh (protected shell). On this device, /bin/sh is a symbolic link to /bin/busybox. ...
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Debug only one thread with ida-gdb server

If I want to debug process in embedded that running linux , I can run gdb-server in embedded and attach to process with Ida. The problem is if this process has 1 thread that can't stop over than x ...
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1answer
70 views

reverse engineering hi3516ev200

I am new to reverse engineering and will describe my situation thus far. In short, I am looking for some tips on what to do next to gain access to a piece of hardware I am playing with. I bought a ...
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0answers
44 views

Voltage Glitching to Read Internal EEPROM

I am trying to read the cryptographic key from my car key fob for exploration, basically seeing if I can clone it. I popped open the case and I see it's using a Microchip HCS361. The HCS361 stores it'...
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1answer
123 views

Reversing a key-gen firmware for RISC-V

I would like to study this firmware for Sipeed MAix, a RISC-V development board. You can download it here: key_gen_v1.2.zip. As the name suggests, its purpose is to calculate and print a "machine key"...
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1answer
88 views

MIPS Router Firmware

I'm pretty new to the whole reverse-engineering thing, but have some background knowledge in x86 asm and comp sci, as well as computer security. Project-based learning has always worked well for me,...
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0answers
75 views

Radare2 jump/switch table walk for 8051

For 8051 target exist famous no-return function with body of d083d082f8e4937012740193700da3a393f8740193f5828883e4737402936860efa3a3a380df which correspond to ?C?CCASE function: / 38: fcn.00000000 ...
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37 views

What kind of memory representation is this?

I am reverse engineering a protocol used by an embedded device. This protocol message contains an 8-bit field which I believe to represent an integer number. To analyze the format used to encode such ...
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2answers
397 views

ECU tune and reverse engineering

I'm new to the ECU (or chip) tune concept, and I try to understand what is going on there. I understand the concept and the goal, but I'm having difficulties to understand what is actually going on ...
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1answer
65 views

Building micro controller memory image in IDA

I have STM32F303 Nucleo board (Datasheet), and I work with Mbed IDE, which allows me to compile code to the board. The compiled code is in .bin format. Some relevant information from the datasheet: ...
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1answer
100 views

vector table address in mpcXXXX microcontrollers

I'm disassembling some mpcXXXX microcontroller firmware, and I'm trying to find the vector table and the reset interrupt. For example, I know that in ARM, in some of the microcontrollers, the vector ...
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1answer
258 views

How to identify memory access locations

I'm working on disassembling a flash dump from a TriCore TC1766 which came from a car (an MT86 ECU). My goal is to identify tables and scalars in the data area, and determine what they are used for. I ...
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2answers
398 views

Unable to extract IP camera firmware

I am trying to extract the firmware for a Panasonic WV-S2131L ip camera. It comes as a .zip file that contains a .img file. I have tried many methods to try to analyze this file and I have found ...
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1answer
326 views

Help needed to extract u-boot kernel & rootfs - nxp lpc 3143 processor

I have a board where in principle aim at emulating a DVD-ROM loading iso file from a drive. This board is running a ARM CPU with 32MB of ram and has no vga output. The firmware update comes with 2 ...
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103 views

Can anyone make much sense of this binary for an embedded system? [closed]

I want to see if anyone more experienced in reverse engineering and disassembly can take a look at this binary update file I have and maby ether help or just say if it is even possible to reverse it. ...
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3answers
305 views

Jump in the middle of an instruction Coldfire firmware

I'm working on an embedded system Coldfire ROM. Currently, I'm trying to reverse engineering it to gain some more in-depth knowledge about its structure. ROM code quality seems pretty low, and I see ...
2
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1answer
186 views

Setting register names in Radare2

I am reverse-engineering an 8051 architecture program of a specific chip. The disassembly naturally doesn't contain any function names, and the register names are minimal. For example, address 0xb3 is ...
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1answer
152 views

Z80 Absolute Jump to offset in middle of instruction

I'm working on reverse engineering an embedded system which uses a Z80 processor. I'm using IDA as the disassembler. I ran upon an absolute jump (JP) that seems to jump to the middle of another ...
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1answer
242 views

Checksum error when flashing modded firmware on embedded device

I'm trying to patch strings in my firmware with a hex editor but I keep getting a checksum error when I go to re-flash the modded firmware onto my device. The device is a Roland gr-55 guitar ...
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1answer
370 views

Extracted router file execution

I am trying to run an executable file that I dug out from an extracted file system of a DSL modem router. So first of all I needed to either have a MIPS Linux box or take the emulation path. After ...
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1answer
1k views

Extract firmware images from COTS embedded devices

I am on the hook to collect some of legacy firmware images from real-world embedded devices. Before digging into it, I am trying to confirm some high-level points. Is it in general possible to ...
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0answers
277 views

How does U-Boot get from this environment to booting Linux?

I'm trying to gain a root access to my ZTE F680 router. I already have a serial connection and able to interrupt the U-Boot autoboot. The problem I'm having is understanding how given the following ...
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0answers
278 views

How do I reverse this firmware? 8-bit handheld console

I recently bought this chinese console that supposedly has 328 8-bit games. I want to understand the code and how it works to hack it and maybe load other ROMs. It has a chip covered in black epoxy ...
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2answers
294 views

Can't trace MIPS embedded device remotely

I'm trying to debug a remote device using gdbserver and IDA Pro. I'm attached to the correct PID and I'm able to step through instructions until the point where I redirect $pc to my ROP chain. At the ...
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2answers
556 views

How to interpret disassembled MIPS code?

I have disassembled MIPS binary with raw opcodes. How to interpret, for example, these lines: Disassembly of section .data: 00000000 <.data>: ... ... f864: 30a5ffff sd ra,-23248(...
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1answer
1k views

Binwalk does not show anything when process binary

I tried use Binwalk to extract content of binary firmware image dumped from flash, but Binwalk does not show anything. I tried commands binwalk -Me file.bin binwalk --dd='.*' file.bin strings ...
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2answers
294 views

Recreating a lzma archive (non-streamed)

I am reversing a Dlink camera firmware (dcs5000l_v1.03.05.bin) and am able to extract lzma data via dd and decompress it via lzma -d lzma_data.lzma. I want to be able to recreate the lzma archive from ...
2
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1answer
317 views

SPI Flash, how to find the System memory addresses?

How to determine the System memory addresses of SPI Flash used in device running eCos operating system? For example, show flash command returns the following info: Flash Device Information: ...
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1answer
251 views

Instruction set for code snippet?

I'm looking for the CPU/Instruction-Set of a closed embedded system. Code snippet: E6 F2 F3 15 E6 F3 0A EF E6 F8 9B 7F E6 F9 5B D5 0D 32 49 94 EA 30 60 71 What I know: E6 Fx is "LDR 16-Bit-...
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2answers
1k views

How does QPST work and how can I make an app like it?

How does Qualcomm's QPST work? Or what protocol/commands does QPST use? As I wanted to develop an app like it, I searched for AT commands. But I can't find out any AT commands that allows me access(...
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0answers
74 views

Identifying unknown chip - markings erased

There seems to be a (relatively) easy way to remove the markings on a chip via laser. When reverse engineering a device with such a chip, what would be some methods of identifying it. It seems that ...
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2answers
2k views

Adding additional language to Linux based Firmware of Volkswagen Car Radio

I'm owning a CarPlay head unit from Volkswagen called RCD330 plus. It is possible to upgrade/downgrade to any available firmwares. For example here are two firmware versions: http://rcd330plus.com/rcd/...
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1answer
739 views

Rebuilding firmware back to binary file

I used Binwalk to extract firmware files, extracted content include 2 folders and one binary file. squashfs-root _351C.extracted 351C Squashfs-root contains file system, '_351C.extracted' folder ...
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2answers
2k views

TP-Link encrypted backup file TX-VG1530

I have been trying to wrap my head round this stuff so bear with me. I have a Tp-Link TX-VG1530. From the gui you can download the config file however the file is encrypted, I include a portion of ...
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3answers
6k views

Help reversing end-of-life'd Logitech Link. How to get Flash Contents

See Update below. I got an email from Logitech that they are End of Lifing their Harmony Link product (see https://community.logitech.com/s/question/0D55A0000745EkCSAU/harmony-link-eos-or-eol). So I ...
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0answers
2k views

RE Tplink TD-W8960N V7

I am trying to reverse engineer a TDw8960 v7 TP-Link router. Currently the router has a bug, whereby setting the MTU via the GUI has no affect. It seems regardless of the value placed here despite ...
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0answers
1k views

Reverse engineering unknown RS232/UART binary protocol

Background story For couple of days I'm trying to crack the protocol used the old medical device, in order to collect data for a research in an automated way. The device in question is Novametrix ...
9
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1answer
4k views

Reverse Engineering ZyXel C1100Z modem firmware

first time post so please bear with me. For days I have been trying to bypass a password my ISP has added to their remote CLI with no luck. I have a Zyxel C1100Z DSL modem that I've purchased from ...
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0answers
637 views

ZyXEL P-2812HNU-F1, replacing the U-Boot on the board

I want flash regular(non branded) firmware on ZyXEL P-2812HNU-F1 router, which have branded version of firmware (customized for local MSO provider). To do this, I should first replace the U-Boot image ...
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1answer
591 views

Help editing & repacking (repackaging) .img wi-fi camera firmware

I've been playing around with a cheapish ($15 on sale @ Wal-Mart) WiFi camera. It has a UART port which drops me into a shell from which I can launch telnetd and login easily. However, even though the ...
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1answer
348 views

What exactly is a SIM card?

Does a SIM card consist of only Flash memory or is there a microprocessor inside as well?
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1answer
220 views

Got root on IP camera, but init.d overwritten at boot. How to start telnetd at launch?

I've got a root shell via UART serial connection to an IP Camera that I've been playing with. Similar device is seen here: https://www.exploitee.rs/index.php/Belkin_NetCam_HD%2B It's got busybox with ...
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0answers
779 views

Trying to dump firmware from embedded flash

I have an Infineon XC161CJ-16F SoC and Micron/ST M29W320EB parallel nor flash memory that I am trying to dump the firmware from but I'm not sure how to proceed. I found JTAG pads that I soldered pins ...
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3answers
3k views

Identify compression of this ZTE ZXV10 H201L V2 backup config file

This config.bin file is from a ZTE router. I would like to decompress it but I did not identify the compression used in the file. Maybe someone can. 00000000 99 99 99 99 44 44 44 44 55 55 55 55 aa ...
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3answers
2k views

How to extract content of NVRAM file?

How to extract content from NVRAM file? NVRAM type is SPI Serial NOR Flash. NVRAM has been copied as mtdblock partition. An embedded device that run Linux v2.6.18_pro500. Linux version 2.6.18_pro500 ...
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2answers
2k views

C-sky CPU reverse-engineering

I am trying to RE a firmware for a TV STB, its based on a GX3201 chip which is based on C-sky CPU (CK610M I think). I am stuck in the following points : I am not able to properly identify the CPU ...