Questions tagged [arm]

A family of instruction set architectures based on a RISC architecture developed by British company ARM Holdings. Heavily used in embedded devices such as mobile phones, tablets, set-top boxes, ...

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Where stack canary is located?

Is stack canary located between the local variable in stack and the place that the function saved the registers in the beginning of function? push r5,lr so I can't change any registers (while the ...
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Finding (or building) a kernel for Huawei EchoLife EG8145V5

I have a Huawei EchoLife EG8145V5 for which I am trying to build some software. It has a built-in Linux distro of some sort, but I would like to add to it, as there is "plenty" of storage ...
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How to know when a subroutine starts when reversing an ARM64 file?

I'm kinda new in the ARM world, and a question suddenly came up in my mind: how does (your favorite reverse engineering tool) know where a subroutine of an ARM64 file is starting (because I'd like to ...
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Disassembling ARM based Camera Firmware

I'm trying to disassemble hikvision firmware 5.5.85. I want to extract the contents of digicap.dav file. Binwalk is unable to extract the known zip files. binwalk -e digicap.dav DECIMAL ...
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Debug bFLT in qemu-arm-static

I have bFLT binary (into linux-arm arch.) that I can run with qemu-arm-static . I want to debug that binary dynamically with GDB. I know I can debug binary with qemu like qemu-arm-static -g 1111 <...
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50 views

Ghidra showing pointer being given as size argument of calloc

I'm attempting to figure out the structure of a "God object". I found where it's being initialized, but I've never seen calloc used like this before: god = (God *)calloc(1,(size_t)&...
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Understanding Hex-Rays syntax

I have a Ida decompiled function that invokes another function through a function pointer but I'm really confused how it calculates it's address. I'm new to hex-rays syntax. int __fastcall SUB_XXXX(...
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ARM Cortex-M0 - How to either (non-intrusively) extract firmware or modify downloadable firmware (NuMicro NUC126)

As a hands-on introduction into RE, I've decided to take on a small, simple embedded device. In hindsight, it was probably a mistake. This "project" has consumed me for about 2 weeks. ...
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28 views

Is there a way to get Ghidra to show the result of an integer division function (div_t) returned in a register more sensibly?

The program I am reverse engineering has a function which I have identified as the C standard div function div_t div(int, int). The div_t result is returned in two ARM registers, r0 for the quotient ...
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Reversing uboot on an aarch64 Hi3559AV target problems

I am trying to reverse uboot for an ARM aarch64 Hi3559AV target. I've dumped the binary uboot.bin.gz, and have loaded it in IDA at the correct address. IDA seems to see a lot of strings (and ...
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Find the entry point in Interrupt Vector Table ARM9

I'm analyzing the firmware of a device that has the cpu ARM946E-S. It has not a file system, just assembly code and strings. I've disassembled the firmware using ida pro, but I couldn't find the entry ...
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What does this ARM assembly code do?

I'm trying to figure out the password that is used to access the U-Boot shell, as mentoined in my previous question. I'm having trouble understanding how exactly the code works. Here is an image of ...
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Loading a U-Boot ARM flash image into IDA Pro

I have a U-Boot image file which was extracted from flash memory of a board with an Hi3520D ARM CPU. I would like to load this file into IDA Pro and dig out the password that is required for accessing ...
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56 views

IDApython - Turning a modified operand into a string reference

I am working on an IDAPython script that is supposed to fix the disassembly of a firmware, by resolving it's symbol table. The core of the script is working fine, but I have some issue when it comes ...
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Reverse Engineering Classes in ARM

I came across this part in the book Reverse Engineering For Beginners book by Denis Yurichev. It writes about reverse engineering Classes in C++, but it doesn't provide any examples in ARM. Page 546 ...
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48 views

What could a firmware image be, if not embedded linux?

I decided to play around with an old baby monitor, purely to learn something about how such things (I.E. embedded devices) work. I successfully extracted the flash memory, and I was expecting this to ...
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159 views

How to extract the kernel assembly code from a zImage?

here is the situation, i have a OnePlus phone and i want to explore his kernel, so i downloaded the zip firmware from the oneplus website, extract the img files from the payload.bin, use this tool to ...
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Help understanding ARM Cortex-M4 SBC instruction

Page 88 of the ARM Cortex-M4 Generic User Guide says "The SBC instruction subtracts the value of Operand2 from the value in Rn. If the carry flag is CLEAR, the result is reduced by one." Why ...
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Help with LDR, LDRD and STR instructions

The Cortex™-M3 Devices Generic User Guide explains the instruction LDRD R8, R9, [R3, #0x20] as "Load R8 from a word 8 bytes above the address in R3, and load R9 from a word 9 bytes above the ...
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Calculate stack layout with Ida Python

In Arm in the beginning of function push r4-r6,lr sub sp sp 0x4 In the end of function pop r4-r6,pc add sp sp 0x4 That mean sp is decreased by 4 register*4 bytes+4 bytes for local variables , ...
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74 views

Injecting code into an ELF binary , got Segmentation fault(SIGSEGV)

I am currently working on an ELF-injector and my approach is standard: find code cave (long enough sequence of 0's), rewrite it with the instructions I want to execute and then jump back to the start ...
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138 views

How can I find out what type of processor an Intel Hex file belongs to?

I have a text file and I know that it is a firmware of a device. This file have Intel Hex Format as below: :03:8000:00:028100FA :02:8003:00:XXXXXX :02:800B:00:XXXXXX :02:8013:00:XXXXXX :01:801B:00:...
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What does the “=>” sign means in ARM assembly LDR?

what does this arm instruction means? LDRB param_1,[r12,r5]=>local_b0 In particular I don't understand the "=>local_b0" part. Ghidra decompiles it to local_b0._0_1_ = *(byte *)((int)&...
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How can i extract u-boot image from fgt90d.out firmware and install Openwrt image?

I have a lot of out of licensed Fortigate90D devices so i want to reuse and run Openwrt/pfsense on them. I have dumped and decoded the bios and got some useful datas, according to datas we can see u-...
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Why would just two bits of the SP be used here?

This is the section of disassembled code in question. It’s from a Linux kernel module compiled for 4.4.16 on ARMv7. ; Registers used: ; - r3 : unsigned long argp 0000005c mov r1, ...
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64 views

Understanding ARMv7 seemingly overly verbose disassembly

I’m working with a disassembled ARMv7 binary. There are several instances where groups of instructions seem sub-optimal, but this one really caught my attention: 00009086 movw r3, #...
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Function obfuscation with hundreds of LDR PC, what is it called and how is it generated?

I am working on some obfuscated code. To my understanding, here is how the obfuscation works: Take the subroutine you want to obfuscate, like; LDR R2, [R0,#8] MOV R0, #0 CMP ...
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36 views

LPC2378FBD144 Arm7 hex file

I have binary file for the LPC2378FBD144 processor ineed to reverse engineer it using IDA V7.3 im little confused about memory organization values i should put in the memory organization thank you for ...
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87 views

Change function call to another function call in arm using IDA

Is it possible to patch arm lib in a way that changes branch instruction calling one function to another function call? I have instruction B function_a and want change it to: B function_b
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68 views

Migrate x86 printer drivers to arm [Brother]

I have a Brother DCP 197C printer and I would like to print from my phone using a raspberry pi. To archieve it I need to install drivers, but brother only provide x86 and x64 drivers, any way to do it?...
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Reverse an encryption algorithem in APK .so file

I try to reverse a cipher algorithm (I guess Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA)) in an android application. But I have a serious problem in initializing arguments. How I can understand that I have ...
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What do these 2 Ghidra warnings mean?

When disassembling ARM binaries in Ghidra, I often see these warnings: /* WARNING: Could not recover jumptable at 0x0747c198. Too many branches */ /* WARNING: Treating ...
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398 views

What is the meaning of ARM LDAXR/STLXR instructions?

Often while disassembling ARM files, I see some code snippet with the following pattern: loc_BB30: .text:C0 FE 5F 88 LDAXR WZR, W0, [X22] .text:00 04 00 51 SUB W0, W0, #1 .text:...
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83 views

Setting Breakpoints on Thumb Instructions in GDB

I'm practicing reversing a stripped arm binary, and found that when I set a breakpoint at say 0x010451, and run the program, gdb spins forever until I hit ctrl+c. When I do, the current pc is at the ...
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36 views

Emulator that emulates arm hardware

I want to hook arm instructions as they executes but most of the emulators are based on VirtualBox that uses houdini to translate arm instructions to x86, and i really can't hook a native JNI lib, ...
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259 views

How to determine ARM architecture from the ELF file extracted from the firmware?

I have extracted the ELF file from the flash dump of a printer, I cannot find too much information about the SoC chip on the printer. What's the best practice to determine the ARM architecture (ARMv7-...
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68 views

Confusion between different ARM architectures

I am trying to develop a machine learning model to help with the process of reverse engineering. As the first stage, we are currently trying to train an embedding model that understand the ...
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76 views

ARM multiply compiler optimization

I need help interpreting this compiler optimization: ;R12 = 0x88888889; UMULL LR, R2, R12, R3 ; R3 * 0x88888889; MOV R2, R2,LSR#3 ; ((R3 * 0x88888889 << 32) >&...
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41 views

JTAG TCK on Intel X Scale (ArmV5) PXA270

Is TCK on JTAG the same speed as CPU clock on a Intel X Scale (ArmV5) PXA270? I'm probing signals on pads around the CPU and got a waveform like: But I don't know whether any of this data is JTAG, or ...
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325 views

Instruction trace using frida in android emulator

i have a emulator named "Ldplayer" in my windows os and I'm trying to log all instructions executed by the app that uses ARM JNI libraries. basically, the app is running in an x86 emulator ...
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55 views

ARM7 32-bit Branch Offset Calculator

I need to patch an arm7 program by replacing this fopen function by another function. .text:00018D68 52 D7 FF EB BL fopen ... .plt:0000EAB8 ; FILE *fopen(const ...
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Replacing bytes from start of every function with IDA Pro

I want to fix a .plt segment in IDA Pro by replacing 12 bytes from start of every function in the .plt segment with the ones I specify. I want to just make each function return so I'm replacing ...
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60 views

Immediate offset LDR in presumed malloc function looks wrong in static analysis

I am attempting to disassemble a ROM image for a BCM4366C [1] after reading a blog post where researchers reversed some other Broadcom chips [2] . I have analyzed the ROM image in Ghidra and I have ...
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406 views

Having hard time analyzing stripped code

This is my first time doing RE on a statically linked and stripped binary with ghidra. And I'm having a really hard time analyzing what function does what just by looking the decompiled code present ...
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55 views

ARM 20-pin JTAG header?

I'm trying to find the JTAG header for an Intel X Scale (ArmV5) PXA270 board. I found and populated a 20-pin header: but JTAGulator doesn't think it has a valid combination of TDI/TDO/TMS/TCK on ...
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I have a two pin debug interface, confused on how to use it

I'm very much on the software side of things so I'm super inexperienced with debugging hardware. A custom processor I'm working with gives 2 debug pins, and given that it's an ARM system I suspect it ...
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130 views

Is Ghidra's decompilation of ARMv7 strb.w instruction broken?

I'm currently disassembling some firmware, when I stumbled across the following code snippet produced by Ghidra (the names are already my own ones): void memset(byte *addr,byte value,int count) ...
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457 views

ARM bx instruction branches to address not specified as argument

I'm debugging an ARM cortex M4 (STM32F4) running FreeRTOS. Inside the assembly FreeRTOS function vPortSVCHandler, there's a branch instruction bx r14 using GDB, I step through instruction by ...
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89 views

Issue understanding simple ARM ASM function

I'm a little stuck trying to understand this simple piece of code. It get's a number in R0. The first part seems to be a R0 = abs(R0), but then it get's more difficult. The number of leading zeros is ...
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32 views

ARMv7 Word Patch (CBZ)

I'm disassembling an iPhone app I'm trying to batch the instruction CBZ -> CBNZ Instruction Code: D9 09 00 34 As per my understanding, CBZ will jump to the address if value of register is 0 I have ...

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