4

In Microsoft Windows, a 32bits process calc.exe has 0x0-0x80000000 (2GB) reserved as its user-space and the rest is kernel-space (2GB). So, a process has 2+2 = 4GB of virtual space. This ratio could be 3:1 also.

The 2GB user space has the PEB information,the heap,the stack, the executable and other dll's which the the exe uses like kernel32.dll, user32.dll, etc.

  • Doubt 1> What does the 2GB kernel space encompasses in itself ?

    Is there a tool to see kernel-space mapping (for the user-space mapping I used OllyDbg).

  • Doubt 2> What happens when ntoskrnl.exe runs ? It doesn't use the native API (but exports implementation of these native APIs to user-space via ntdll.dll. So, that native application could use it before win32 kicks in). Therefore, there should be no dlls in the virtual space of ntoskrnl.exe.

    Is ntoskrnl.exe located in kernel-space ?

3

Please only ask one question per post. This answer is in response to your first of two questions.

Is there a tool to see kernel-space mapping

Yes, you can use LiveKd to examine the contents of kernel space.

For example, I can see the loaded modules and their addresses in kernel-space with the command lmvk:

kd> lmvk
start    end        module name
80bd5000 80bdd000   kdcom      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\kdcom.pdb\F48BD9BC030C43D89689518F892586901\kdcom.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: kdcom.dll
    Image path: kdcom.dll
    Image name: kdcom.dll
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 20:08:58 2009 (4A5BDAAA)
    CheckSum:         000138B1
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82816000 82c28000   nt         (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ntkrpamp.pdb\CE18EBF87B6A4C5CBF77806534BD94782\ntkrpamp.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ntkrpamp.exe
    Image path: ntkrpamp.exe
    Image name: ntkrpamp.exe
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 19 05:51:44 2011 (4EC79850)
    CheckSum:         003CAC28
    ImageSize:        00412000
    File version:     6.1.7601.17727
    Product version:  6.1.7601.17727
    File flags:       0 (Mask 3F)
    File OS:          40004 NT Win32
    File type:        1.0 App
    File date:        00000000.00000000
    Translations:     0409.04b0
    CompanyName:      Microsoft Corporation
    ProductName:      Microsoft® Windows® Operating System
    InternalName:     ntkrpamp.exe
    OriginalFilename: ntkrpamp.exe
    ProductVersion:   6.1.7601.17727
    FileVersion:      6.1.7601.17727 (win7sp1_gdr.111118-2330)
    FileDescription:  NT Kernel & System
    LegalCopyright:   © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
82c28000 82c5f000   hal        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\halmacpi.pdb\AE605D6C59454802AE1D485E0B089A571\halmacpi.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: halmacpi.dll
    Image path: halmacpi.dll
    Image name: halmacpi.dll
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:37:38 2010 (4CE788D2)
    CheckSum:         00037FB1
    ImageSize:        00037000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82e09000 82e14000   mcupdate_AuthenticAMD   (no symbols)           
    Loaded symbol image file: mcupdate_AuthenticAMD.dll
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\mcupdate_AuthenticAMD.dll
    Image name: mcupdate_AuthenticAMD.dll
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:13:13 2009 (4A5BBF89)
    CheckSum:         0000BD79
    ImageSize:        0000B000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82e14000 82e25000   PSHED      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\pshed.pdb\5ACEAFD8AD3A46FEAD083AFDF675DA391\pshed.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: PSHED.dll
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\PSHED.dll
    Image name: PSHED.dll
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 20:09:36 2009 (4A5BDAD0)
    CheckSum:         000108A2
    ImageSize:        00011000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82e25000 82e2d000   BOOTVID    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\bootvid.pdb\10C3ABD4165D4ED3A9493BB094B44AEA1\bootvid.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: BOOTVID.dll
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\BOOTVID.dll
    Image name: BOOTVID.dll
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 20:04:34 2009 (4A5BD9A2)
    CheckSum:         00010FF0
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82e2d000 82e6f000   CLFS       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\clfs.pdb\04F22EAC7BD04A1BA81A6FB5D319649F1\clfs.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: CLFS.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\CLFS.SYS
    Image name: CLFS.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:10 2009 (4A5BBF0E)
    CheckSum:         000461C7
    ImageSize:        00042000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82e6f000 82f1a000   CI         (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ci.pdb\3358E6E48A5245F6AB97EA05356E020F1\ci.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: CI.dll
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\CI.dll
    Image name: CI.dll
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 06:05:17 2010 (4CE7B97D)
    CheckSum:         000ADFF9
    ImageSize:        000AB000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82f1a000 82f8b000   Wdf01000   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\Wdf01000.pdb\A9E46808F4F748178D3071AA9EE76FB71\Wdf01000.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: Wdf01000.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\Wdf01000.sys
    Image name: Wdf01000.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:36 2009 (4A5BBF28)
    CheckSum:         000717B7
    ImageSize:        00071000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82f8b000 82f99000   WDFLDR     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\wdfldr.pdb\95D9DB57778548E6B6774520468479891\wdfldr.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: WDFLDR.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\WDFLDR.SYS
    Image name: WDFLDR.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:25 2009 (4A5BBF1D)
    CheckSum:         00009DF6
    ImageSize:        0000E000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82f99000 82fe1000   ACPI       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\acpi.pdb\E7300A0CC3524834A4E1E55773C1901E1\acpi.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ACPI.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\ACPI.sys
    Image name: ACPI.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:37:52 2010 (4CE788E0)
    CheckSum:         0004F583
    ImageSize:        00048000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82fe1000 82fea000   WMILIB     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\wmilib.pdb\F52B38A4800849D48BFFD48715A446A51\wmilib.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: WMILIB.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\WMILIB.SYS
    Image name: WMILIB.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:22 2009 (4A5BBF1A)
    CheckSum:         0000B93D
    ImageSize:        00009000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
82fea000 82ff2000   msisadrv   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\msisadrv.pdb\5D6926DA4AD1474BAE8CBDA5909F68201\msisadrv.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: msisadrv.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\msisadrv.sys
    Image name: msisadrv.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:09 2009 (4A5BBF0D)
    CheckSum:         0000CD81
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87800000 87811000   fileinfo   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\fileinfo.pdb\EBD1E885413A4242AA515F1B06BB564F1\fileinfo.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: fileinfo.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\fileinfo.sys
    Image name: fileinfo.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:21:51 2009 (4A5BC18F)
    CheckSum:         0001E423
    ImageSize:        00011000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8781a000 87844000   pci        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\pci.pdb\2E2A912260694615A7E97AFBA3FA934E1\pci.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: pci.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\pci.sys
    Image name: pci.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:37:57 2010 (4CE788E5)
    CheckSum:         0002B72C
    ImageSize:        0002A000
    File version:     6.1.7601.17514
    Product version:  6.1.7601.17514
    File flags:       0 (Mask 3F)
    File OS:          40004 NT Win32
    File type:        2.0 Dll
    File date:        00000000.00000000
    Translations:     0409.04b0
    CompanyName:      Microsoft Corporation
    ProductName:      Microsoft® Windows® Operating System
    InternalName:     pci.sys
    OriginalFilename: pci.sys
    ProductVersion:   6.1.7601.17514
    FileVersion:      6.1.7601.17514 (win7sp1_rtm.101119-1850)
    FileDescription:  NT Plug and Play PCI Enumerator
    LegalCopyright:   © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
87844000 8784f000   vdrvroot   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\vdrvroot.pdb\3C9D6939EF564015B8D0728611C88C221\vdrvroot.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: vdrvroot.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\vdrvroot.sys
    Image name: vdrvroot.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:46:19 2009 (4A5BC74B)
    CheckSum:         00009326
    ImageSize:        0000B000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8784f000 87860000   partmgr    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\partmgr.pdb\7CA861FF7879483ABA38CE28186F293E2\partmgr.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: partmgr.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\partmgr.sys
    Image name: partmgr.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:14 2010 (4CE788F6)
    CheckSum:         0001BB55
    ImageSize:        00011000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87860000 87868000   compbatt   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\compbatt.pdb\EE14F03B54BF49B4B62A0EF912A59C8F1\compbatt.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: compbatt.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\compbatt.sys
    Image name: compbatt.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:19:18 2009 (4A5BC0F6)
    CheckSum:         00006941
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87868000 87873000   BATTC      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\battc.pdb\53C47BEA2F08470BB58DFD1566285EC71\battc.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: BATTC.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\BATTC.SYS
    Image name: BATTC.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:19:15 2009 (4A5BC0F3)
    CheckSum:         0000B849
    ImageSize:        0000B000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87873000 87883000   volmgr     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\volmgr.pdb\4AF04B598C494297B1C69F95823AA9F81\volmgr.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: volmgr.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\volmgr.sys
    Image name: volmgr.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:06 2010 (4CE788EE)
    CheckSum:         00016E1A
    ImageSize:        00010000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87883000 878ce000   volmgrx    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\volmgrx.pdb\433F00DD3CC34DE8BC3F9E4BDDACA5EE1\volmgrx.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: volmgrx.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\volmgrx.sys
    Image name: volmgrx.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:41 2009 (4A5BBF2D)
    CheckSum:         0004A22A
    ImageSize:        0004B000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
878ce000 878d5000   intelide   (no symbols)           
    Loaded symbol image file: intelide.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\intelide.sys
    Image name: intelide.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:19 2009 (4A5BBF17)
    CheckSum:         00006324
    ImageSize:        00007000
    File version:     6.1.7600.16385
    Product version:  6.1.7600.16385
    File flags:       0 (Mask 3F)
    File OS:          40004 NT Win32
    File type:        3.7 Driver
    File date:        00000000.00000000
    Translations:     0409.04b0
    CompanyName:      Microsoft Corporation
    ProductName:      Microsoft® Windows® Operating System
    InternalName:     intelide.sys
    OriginalFilename: intelide.sys
    ProductVersion:   6.1.7600.16385
    FileVersion:      6.1.7600.16385 (win7_rtm.090713-1255)
    FileDescription:  Intel PCI IDE Driver
    LegalCopyright:   © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
878d5000 878e3000   PCIIDEX    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\pciidex.pdb\8B7BC6201128486CB5B03916EBD5FF8E1\pciidex.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: PCIIDEX.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\PCIIDEX.SYS
    Image name: PCIIDEX.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:15 2009 (4A5BBF13)
    CheckSum:         0000FC04
    ImageSize:        0000E000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
878e3000 878f9000   mountmgr   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\mountmgr.pdb\356DDF9839E040638E034EEA956C28F81\mountmgr.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: mountmgr.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\mountmgr.sys
    Image name: mountmgr.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:09 2010 (4CE788F1)
    CheckSum:         00014708
    ImageSize:        00016000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
878f9000 87922180   vmbus      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\vmbus.pdb\35B5AB3E6BDF4D3FA0BDC6AC31AC97FC1\vmbus.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: vmbus.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\vmbus.sys
    Image name: vmbus.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 03:14:58 2010 (4CE79192)
    CheckSum:         0002F9E5
    ImageSize:        00029180
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87923000 87935000   winhv      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\winhv.pdb\5B6B8428A8FA4152919E805179599ED31\winhv.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: winhv.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\winhv.sys
    Image name: winhv.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:15 2010 (4CE788F7)
    CheckSum:         00010243
    ImageSize:        00012000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87935000 8793e000   atapi      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\atapi.pdb\EF544461A5D5482980C2CA01640A6D621\atapi.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: atapi.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\atapi.sys
    Image name: atapi.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:15 2009 (4A5BBF13)
    CheckSum:         00014C06
    ImageSize:        00009000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8793e000 87961000   ataport    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ataport.pdb\C9AF9FE9166548FD86EFAC017F6023011\ataport.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ataport.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\ataport.SYS
    Image name: ataport.SYS
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:00 2010 (4CE788E8)
    CheckSum:         0002B87F
    ImageSize:        00023000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87961000 87979000   lsi_sas    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\lsi_sas.pdb\FCC2DAF36299423A9765B62D750A97461\lsi_sas.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: lsi_sas.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\lsi_sas.sys
    Image name: lsi_sas.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon May 18 19:19:55 2009 (4A11FB2B)
    CheckSum:         00024959
    ImageSize:        00018000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87979000 879c1000   storport   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\storport.pdb\1445D4DB7BA84A0081ABB729753A93942\storport.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: storport.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\storport.sys
    Image name: storport.sys
    Timestamp:        Thu Mar 10 21:56:00 2011 (4D799D50)
    CheckSum:         000277A3
    ImageSize:        00048000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
879c1000 879ca000   amdxata    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\amdxata.pdb\5E66F230920844408A1EE389D50B6B4A1\amdxata.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: amdxata.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\amdxata.sys
    Image name: amdxata.sys
    Timestamp:        Fri Mar 19 11:19:01 2010 (4BA3A3F5)
    CheckSum:         000147B2
    ImageSize:        00009000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
879ca000 879fe000   fltmgr     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\fltMgr.pdb\E6CA9E082E70438988788CB58DB340B01\fltMgr.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: fltmgr.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\fltmgr.sys
    Image name: fltmgr.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:13 2009 (4A5BBF11)
    CheckSum:         000382A8
    ImageSize:        00034000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87a00000 87a0e000   pcw        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\pcw.pdb\D368300F340A423EBBA32FBDDDEC24B91\pcw.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: pcw.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\pcw.sys
    Image name: pcw.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:10 2009 (4A5BBF0E)
    CheckSum:         000194CF
    ImageSize:        0000E000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87a0e000 87a17000   Fs_Rec     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\fs_rec.pdb\3465ED05A901452FAD07E77351F094591\fs_rec.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: Fs_Rec.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\Fs_Rec.sys
    Image name: Fs_Rec.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:14 2009 (4A5BBF12)
    CheckSum:         0000845A
    ImageSize:        00009000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87a2a000 87b59000   Ntfs       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ntfs.pdb\6D39EA084D324936A61D6DBDE4D1172B2\ntfs.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: Ntfs.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\Ntfs.sys
    Image name: Ntfs.sys
    Timestamp:        Thu Mar 10 21:21:11 2011 (4D799527)
    CheckSum:         0012D977
    ImageSize:        0012F000
    File version:     6.1.7601.17577
    Product version:  6.1.7601.17577
    File flags:       0 (Mask 3F)
    File OS:          40004 NT Win32
    File type:        3.7 Driver
    File date:        00000000.00000000
    Translations:     0409.04b0
    CompanyName:      Microsoft Corporation
    ProductName:      Microsoft® Windows® Operating System
    InternalName:     ntfs.sys
    OriginalFilename: ntfs.sys
    ProductVersion:   6.1.7601.17577
    FileVersion:      6.1.7601.17577 (win7sp1_gdr.110310-1504)
    FileDescription:  NT File System Driver
    LegalCopyright:   © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
87b59000 87b84000   msrpc      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\msrpc.pdb\B4C428CFD1024C43BD3E2B10D1A8F0711\msrpc.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: msrpc.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\msrpc.sys
    Image name: msrpc.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:59 2009 (4A5BBF3F)
    CheckSum:         00036B4F
    ImageSize:        0002B000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87b84000 87b97000   ksecdd     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ksecdd.pdb\A4060D19AD914446AB889720E6B7284C1\ksecdd.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ksecdd.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\ksecdd.sys
    Image name: ksecdd.sys
    Timestamp:        Wed Nov 16 21:15:56 2011 (4EC47C6C)
    CheckSum:         00015ED3
    ImageSize:        00013000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87b97000 87bf4000   cng        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\cng.pdb\E729F2E7DC70413D986258B0E44C22CC1\cng.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: cng.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\cng.sys
    Image name: cng.sys
    Timestamp:        Wed Nov 16 21:36:35 2011 (4EC48143)
    CheckSum:         00068127
    ImageSize:        0005D000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87c07000 87cbe000   ndis       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ndis.pdb\4DAAA54E2C26455DB2471D696BC8E6A62\ndis.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ndis.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\ndis.sys
    Image name: ndis.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:39:19 2010 (4CE78937)
    CheckSum:         000BD48D
    ImageSize:        000B7000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87cbe000 87cfc000   NETIO      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\netio.pdb\7A33726ABE884384BFDFB951F05D13AC2\netio.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: NETIO.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\NETIO.SYS
    Image name: NETIO.SYS
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:40:03 2010 (4CE78963)
    CheckSum:         0003F253
    ImageSize:        0003E000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87cfc000 87d21000   ksecpkg    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\ksecpkg.pdb\8C991B24F8F24A96B28B8268237920CF1\ksecpkg.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: ksecpkg.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\ksecpkg.sys
    Image name: ksecpkg.sys
    Timestamp:        Wed Nov 16 21:37:34 2011 (4EC4817E)
    CheckSum:         0002C883
    ImageSize:        00025000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87d21000 87d60000   volsnap    (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\volsnap.pdb\1F66E7165E8F4BD982A34A9DFA1BBFD31\volsnap.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: volsnap.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\volsnap.sys
    Image name: volsnap.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:38:13 2010 (4CE788F5)
    CheckSum:         0003CA6D
    ImageSize:        0003F000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87d60000 87d92000   fvevol     (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\fvevol.pdb\DC4549C710EE425F8956C7D82BFE83651\fvevol.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: fvevol.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\DRIVERS\fvevol.sys
    Image name: fvevol.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:40:22 2010 (4CE78976)
    CheckSum:         000390DC
    ImageSize:        00032000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87d92000 87db7000   CLASSPNP   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\classpnp.pdb\64A86A6AD27D4730A78ECC25166E13562\classpnp.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: CLASSPNP.SYS
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\CLASSPNP.SYS
    Image name: CLASSPNP.SYS
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:20 2009 (4A5BBF18)
    CheckSum:         0002BBFE
    ImageSize:        00025000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87e00000 87e10000   mup        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\mup.pdb\E96F69551E2447289250F71FB5AB6E0C2\mup.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: mup.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\mup.sys
    Image name: mup.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:14:14 2009 (4A5BBFC6)
    CheckSum:         00014283
    ImageSize:        00010000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87e10000 87e18000   hwpolicy   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\hwpolicy.pdb\0F041CEBADCA48F4BC65F68463272F1D1\hwpolicy.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: hwpolicy.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\hwpolicy.sys
    Image name: hwpolicy.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:37:35 2010 (4CE788CF)
    CheckSum:         0000B2B9
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87e18000 87e29000   disk       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\disk.pdb\D2AD04F7F4BF45C8A8F0E2BF689326F11\disk.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: disk.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\disk.sys
    Image name: disk.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:11:28 2009 (4A5BBF20)
    CheckSum:         000152A4
    ImageSize:        00011000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87e3e000 87f88000   tcpip      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\tcpip.pdb\676C275B8EAE4B50A19255B333A152BA2\tcpip.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: tcpip.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\tcpip.sys
    Image name: tcpip.sys
    Timestamp:        Wed Sep 28 22:22:11 2011 (4E83E463)
    CheckSum:         0013EA1F
    ImageSize:        0014A000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87f88000 87fb9000   fwpkclnt   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\fwpkclnt.pdb\FDE8223F22C54AEA8061EE56EA16A0251\fwpkclnt.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: fwpkclnt.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\fwpkclnt.sys
    Image name: fwpkclnt.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:39:08 2010 (4CE7892C)
    CheckSum:         0003B983
    ImageSize:        00031000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87fb9000 87fc1380   vmstorfl   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\vmstorfl.pdb\D7FD176CC0134139B2EE4BEAF352AEE41\vmstorfl.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: vmstorfl.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\vmstorfl.sys
    Image name: vmstorfl.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 03:14:37 2010 (4CE7917D)
    CheckSum:         000131D0
    ImageSize:        00008380
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87fc2000 87fca000   spldr      (no symbols)           
    Loaded symbol image file: spldr.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\spldr.sys
    Image name: spldr.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon May 11 11:13:47 2009 (4A084EBB)
    CheckSum:         0000767D
    ImageSize:        00008000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
87fca000 87ff7000   rdyboost   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\rdyboost.pdb\53BB42ABE1404332962CA2AEA8301D331\rdyboost.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: rdyboost.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\rdyboost.sys
    Image name: rdyboost.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 03:00:07 2010 (4CE78E17)
    CheckSum:         000394EA
    ImageSize:        0002D000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8ca08000 8ca49000   rdbss      (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\rdbss.pdb\A65B6296E0414A128A1951A1350D32C02\rdbss.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: rdbss.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\rdbss.sys
    Image name: rdbss.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:42:44 2010 (4CE78A04)
    CheckSum:         000464DE
    ImageSize:        00041000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8ca49000 8ca53000   nsiproxy   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\nsiproxy.pdb\C05F47CD56124B77BD71E3DFB669D4FF1\nsiproxy.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: nsiproxy.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\nsiproxy.sys
    Image name: nsiproxy.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:12:08 2009 (4A5BBF48)
    CheckSum:         0000939B
    ImageSize:        0000A000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8ca53000 8ca5d000   mssmbios   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\mssmbios.pdb\B9453B9B745D45DE974BA45D910B78481\mssmbios.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: mssmbios.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\mssmbios.sys
    Image name: mssmbios.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:19:25 2009 (4A5BC0FD)
    CheckSum:         0000B8F6
    ImageSize:        0000A000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8ca5d000 8ca69000   discache   (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\discache.pdb\1F3066C30EA34CC381D3006454C11BD11\discache.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: discache.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\discache.sys
    Image name: discache.sys
    Timestamp:        Mon Jul 13 18:24:04 2009 (4A5BC214)
    CheckSum:         0000EDA3
    ImageSize:        0000C000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8ca69000 8cacd000   csc        (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\csc.pdb\A6CAEC9D41C74DECA0E523C20AAB9A4F2\csc.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: csc.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\system32\drivers\csc.sys
    Image name: csc.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:44:32 2010 (4CE78A70)
    CheckSum:         00065355
    ImageSize:        00064000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
8cacd000 8cae5000   dfsc       (pdb symbols)          c:\symbols\dfsc.pdb\52BC36B80CED4847964EF156BC67E96E1\dfsc.pdb
    Loaded symbol image file: dfsc.sys
    Image path: \SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\dfsc.sys
    Image name: dfsc.sys
    Timestamp:        Sat Nov 20 02:42:32 2010 (4CE789F8)
    CheckSum:         00015073
    ImageSize:        00018000
    Translations:     0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.04b0 0409.04e4
...
  • Thankyou Jason I asked two questions because they were interlinked – rebel87 Jul 28 '15 at 19:41
  • Next time Ill keep it in mind to ssk a single question. .. – rebel87 Jul 28 '15 at 19:43
2

if you have windbg installed open a command prompt and execute

C:>cdb -c "!address;.attach -k;g;!address;.detach;q" calc

    0:000> cdb: Reading initial command '!address;.attach -k;g;!address;.detach;q'

      BaseAddr EndAddr+1 RgnSize     Type       State                 Protect             Usage
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    *        0    10000    10000             MEM_FREE    PAGE_NOACCESS                      Free
    *    10000    12000     2000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READWRITE                     <unclassified>
    *    12000    20000     e000             MEM_FREE    PAGE_NOACCESS                      Free
    *    20000    21000     1000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READWRITE                     <unclassified>

    snip--------------------------------
PAGE_NOACCESS                      Free
    * 7ffb0000 7ffd4000    24000 MEM_MAPPED  MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READONLY                      MemoryMappedFile "PageFile"
    * 7ffd4000 7ffdc000     8000             MEM_FREE    PAGE_NOACCESS                      Free
    * 7ffdc000 7ffdd000     1000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READWRITE                     PEB [35c]
    * 7ffdd000 7ffdf000     2000             MEM_FREE    PAGE_NOACCESS                      Free
    * 7ffdf000 7ffe0000     1000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READWRITE                     TEB [35c.d0; ~0]
    * 7ffe0000 7ffe1000     1000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_COMMIT  PAGE_READONLY                      <unclassified>
    |-7ffe1000 7fff0000     f000 MEM_PRIVATE MEM_RESERVE PAGE_NOACCESS                      <unclassified>

    Attach will occur on next execution
    WARNING: Local kernel debugging requires booting with kernel
    debugging support (/debug or bcdedit -debug on) to work optimally.

      804d7000 - 001f9000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageImage
              ImageName   ntkrnlpa.exe

      81ec6000 - 00df0000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsagePFNDatabase

      82cb6000 - 08000000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageNonPagedPool

      a71b7000 - 00004000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageKernelStack
              KernelStack 8ab4eda8 : 23c.6a8

snip-----------------------------------------------------------
      ba5a0000 - 00004000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageKernelStack
              KernelStack 8a717020 : 4.140

      ba5a4000 - 00004000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageKernelStack
              KernelStack 8aac0bd8 : 190.1b8

      bb800000 - 00400000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageSessionPool

      bbc00000 - 03400000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageSessionView

      bf000000 - 01000000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageSessionImage

      c1200000 - 1fe00000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageSystemCache

      e1000000 - 16800000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsagePagedPool

      f7be0000 - 08000000
              Usage       KernelSpaceUsageNonPagedPoolExpansion

    Detached
    quit:

    C:\>
  • thank you blabb, it shows the memory map not the contents but nevertheless I will not have to use the vmap tool from now onwards.. :-) – rebel87 Jul 29 '15 at 5:05
0

Kernel mode memory is not process-specific. It is identical for all processes.

ntoskrnl.exe is not a process in itself. It is kernel image. Microsoft decided to use same file-format (PE) for the kernel image, as they use for other executables. Kernel image is shared by all processes.

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