They aren't any, do no try to do the mathematically impossible.
For now, all the techniques I found on Internet were easily worked
around as soon as the anti-debug technique has been understood. So, I
wonder if there are stronger ones.
Yes, because there is no way of detecting a debugger that can not be faked.
Software can not detect if it runs in a perfect emulation or in the real world. And a emulator can be stopped, the software can be analyzed, variables can be changed, basically everything can be done what can be done in a debugger.
Lets say you want to detect if the parent process is a debugger. So you make a system call to get the parent PID? The debugger can intercept the system call and return any PID which does not have to be the real PID. You want to intercept every SIGTRAP so the debugger can't use it anymore? Well the debugger can just stop in this case and send the SIGTRAP also to your process. You want to measure the time when you send SIGTRAP to know if the the process stops for a short time by the debugger for sending SIGTRAP so you know when there is a debugger? The debugger can replace your calls to get the time and return a fake time. Lets say you run on a Processor that has a instruction that returns the time, so no function call is needed to get the time. Now you can know that the time you are getting is real? No, the debugger can replace this instruction with a SIGTRAP instruction and return any time he wants or in case such a instruction does not exist, run the Software in a emulator that can be programmed in any way. Everything you can come up with to detect a debugger or emulator can be faked by the environment and you have 0 change to detect it.
The only way to stop debugging is by not giving the software to the customers but keep it in your hands. Make a cloud service and run the software on your server. In this case the customer can not debug your program since he does not run it and has no control over it. Except the customer can access the server or the data somehow, but that is a different story.