I want to modify the mentioned camera firmware (SJ1000). The binary (.bin) firmware file can be downloaded from archive.org. I used binwalk to scan the binary, but I'm stuck. The binwalk signature scan detects 3 signatures in the binary:

  2. LZMA-compressed data
  3. LZMA-compressed data

The two LZMA compression signatures seem to be false positives, because they have a negative size. I copied the LZMA-compressed data with dd, but I can't unpack it. The LZMA unpacker returns an error message: the file is not valid LZMA compressed data.

As for the 88K BCS EXECUTABLE signature: I don't know what is this. I can copy it with dd, but I can't do anything with this.

What can I do? Is it possible to decompose this file into its constituent parts, or is this impossible?


2 Answers 2


Googling for some strings (Novatek, NT96650 etc.) produces some interesting results:

Datasheet claims it's a MIPS32 CPU and indeed it seems there is some little-endian MIPS code inside:

ROM:0000070C F8 FF BD 27                 addiu   $sp, -8
ROM:00000710 3B 80 02 3C                 lui     $v0, 0x803B
ROM:00000714 04 00 BE AF                 sw      $fp, 4($sp)
ROM:00000718 21 F0 A0 03                 move    $fp, $sp
ROM:0000071C 21 E8 C0 03                 move    $sp, $fp
ROM:00000720 68 4B 42 8C                 lw      $v0, 0x803B4B68
ROM:00000724 04 00 BE 8F                 lw      $fp, 4($sp)
ROM:00000728 08 00 E0 03                 jr      $ra
ROM:0000072C 08 00 BD 27                 addiu   $sp, 8

According to the presentation, it's running an uITRON-based RTOS so apparently there's no real filesystem or modules but everything is linked into one big blob of code.

P.S. loading the firmware at 0x80000000 seems to line up the strings nicely:

ROM:8005696C sub_8005696C:                            # CODE XREF: sub_8000040C:loc_800006B4↑p
ROM:8005696C var_20          = -0x20
ROM:8005696C var_18          = -0x18
ROM:8005696C var_14          = -0x14
ROM:8005696C var_10          = -0x10
ROM:8005696C var_C           = -0xC
ROM:8005696C var_8           = -8
ROM:8005696C var_4           = -4
ROM:8005696C                 addiu   $sp, -0x30
ROM:80056970                 sw      $fp, 0x30+var_8($sp)
ROM:80056974                 move    $fp, $sp
ROM:80056978                 sw      $ra, 0x30+var_4($sp)
ROM:8005697C                 sw      $s3, 0x30+var_C($sp)
ROM:80056980                 sw      $s2, 0x30+var_10($sp)
ROM:80056984                 sw      $s1, 0x30+var_14($sp)
ROM:80056988                 lui     $s2, 0x8005
ROM:8005698C                 lui     $s1, 0x8002
ROM:80056990                 sw      $s0, 0x30+var_18($sp)
ROM:80056994                 jal     sub_8005C6CC
ROM:80056998                 lui     $s0, 0x8002
ROM:8005699C                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:800569A0                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:800569A4                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569A8                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569AC                 li      $v0, 0x36  # '6'
ROM:800569B0                 la      $a1, aSSDN_mainBegin  # "%s::%s():%d: ^N(_main begin)\r\n"
ROM:800569B4                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:800569B8                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:800569BC                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:800569C0                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569C4                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569C8                 li      $v0, 0x38  # '8'
ROM:800569CC                 la      $a1, aSSDRegExpHandl  # "%s::%s():%d: (reg exp handler)\r\n"
ROM:800569D0                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:800569D4                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:800569D8                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:800569DC                 lui     $a0, 0x8005
ROM:800569E0                 jal     sub_8005C670
ROM:800569E4                 la      $a0, unk_80056BA8
ROM:800569E8                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:800569EC                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569F0                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:800569F4                 li      $v0, 0x3C  # '<'
ROM:800569F8                 la      $a1, aSSDKernelInit  # "%s::%s():%d: (kernel init)\r\n"
ROM:800569FC                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056A00                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056A04                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056A08                 jal     sub_8005C5F8
ROM:80056A0C                 lui     $a0, 0x800
ROM:80056A10                 lui     $a0, 0x8000
ROM:80056A14                 jal     sub_8005C03C
ROM:80056A18                 lui     $a1, 0x800
ROM:80056A1C                 jal     sub_8005BDB4
ROM:80056A20                 lui     $s3, 0x8000
ROM:80056A24                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056A28                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A2C                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A30                 la      $a1, aSSDInstallCode  # "%s::%s():%d: (Install code section)\r\n"
ROM:80056A34                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056A38                 li      $v0, 0x44  # 'D'
ROM:80056A3C                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056A40                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056A44                 jal     sub_8005C264
ROM:80056A48                 ori     $a0, $s3, 0x308
ROM:80056A4C                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056A50                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A54                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A58                 la      $a1, aSSDInstallCo_0  # "%s::%s():%d: (Install code zi)\r\n"
ROM:80056A5C                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056A60                 li      $v0, 0x47  # 'G'
ROM:80056A64                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056A68                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056A6C                 jal     sub_8005C31C
ROM:80056A70                 ori     $a0, $s3, 0x300
ROM:80056A74                 jal     sub_8005C1DC
ROM:80056A78                 nop
ROM:80056A7C                 jal     sub_8005BE28
ROM:80056A80                 nop
ROM:80056A84                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056A88                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056A8C                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A90                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056A94                 li      $v0, 0x50  # 'P'
ROM:80056A98                 la      $a1, aSSDInstallDrvI  # "%s::%s():%d: (Install Drv ID)\r\n"
ROM:80056A9C                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056AA0                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056AA4                 jal     sub_8005FCBC
ROM:80056AA8                 nop
ROM:80056AAC                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056AB0                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056AB4                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056AB8                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056ABC                 la      $a1, aSSDInstallUser  # "%s::%s():%d: (Install User ID)\r\n"
ROM:80056AC0                 li      $v0, 0x54  # 'T'
ROM:80056AC4                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056AC8                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056ACC                 jal     sub_80056D60
ROM:80056AD0                 nop
ROM:80056AD4                 jal     sub_8005BE90
ROM:80056AD8                 nop
ROM:80056ADC                 jal     sub_8005BEE4
ROM:80056AE0                 nop
ROM:80056AE4                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056AE8                 addiu   $a0, $s0, (asc_8001ED34 - 0x80020000)  # "*"
ROM:80056AEC                 addiu   $a2, $s1, (a_main - 0x80020000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056AF0                 addiu   $a3, $s2, (a_main_0 - 0x80050000)  # "_main"
ROM:80056AF4                 la      $a1, aSSDInstallUs_0  # "%s::%s():%d: (Install User ID for mempo"...
ROM:80056AF8                 li      $v0, 0x5C  # '\'
ROM:80056AFC                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056B00                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056B04                 jal     sub_80056BEC
ROM:80056B08                 nop
ROM:80056B0C                 jal     sub_8005BF54
ROM:80056B10                 nop
ROM:80056B14                 jal     sub_80056634
ROM:80056B18                 nop
ROM:80056B1C                 jal     sub_80056910
ROM:80056B20                 nop
ROM:80056B24                 jal     sub_8005B52C
ROM:80056B28                 nop
ROM:80056B2C                 jal     sub_8005A714
ROM:80056B30                 nop
ROM:80056B34                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056B38                 addiu   $a0, $s0, -0x12CC
ROM:80056B3C                 addiu   $a2, $s1, -0x12A8
ROM:80056B40                 addiu   $a3, $s2, 0x6BE4
ROM:80056B44                 la      $a1, aSSDKernelStart  # "%s::%s():%d: (kernel startup)\r\n"
ROM:80056B48                 li      $v0, 0x68  # 'h'
ROM:80056B4C                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056B50                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056B54                 jal     sub_8005BF74
ROM:80056B58                 nop
ROM:80056B5C                 lui     $a1, 0x8002
ROM:80056B60                 addiu   $a0, $s0, -0x12CC
ROM:80056B64                 addiu   $a2, $s1, -0x12A8
ROM:80056B68                 addiu   $a3, $s2, 0x6BE4
ROM:80056B6C                 li      $v0, 0x6C  # 'l'
ROM:80056B70                 la      $a1, aSSD_mainEnd  # "%s::%s():%d: (_main end)\r\n"
ROM:80056B74                 jal     sub_800C3AD4
ROM:80056B78                 sw      $v0, 0x30+var_20($sp)
ROM:80056B7C                 jal     sub_800D2E64
ROM:80056B80                 nop
ROM:80056B84                 move    $sp, $fp
ROM:80056B88                 lw      $ra, 0x30+var_4($sp)
ROM:80056B8C                 lw      $fp, 0x30+var_8($sp)
ROM:80056B90                 lw      $s3, 0x30+var_C($sp)
ROM:80056B94                 lw      $s2, 0x30+var_10($sp)
ROM:80056B98                 lw      $s1, 0x30+var_14($sp)
ROM:80056B9C                 lw      $s0, 0x30+var_18($sp)
ROM:80056BA0                 jr      $ra
ROM:80056BA4                 addiu   $sp, 0x30
ROM:80056BA4  # End of function sub_8005696C

Always verify the results of a signature scan before attempting extraction.

There are no LZMA-compressed regions in this binary. Here is the output of a signature scan using binwalk v2.1.1:

$ binwalk FW96650A.bin

167266        0x28D62         Unix path: /15/20/24/25/30/60/120/240fps can be served..
279206        0x442A6         Copyright string: "Copyright (c) 2012 Novatek Microelectronic Corp."
2158492       0x20EF9C        JPEG image data, JFIF standard 1.02
2195060       0x217E74        MySQL ISAM compressed data file Version 6

Here are the results of the entropy analysis:

Entropy scan

$ binwalk -E FW96650A.bin

0             0x0             Falling entropy edge (0.574748)
2158592       0x20F000        Rising entropy edge (0.963265)  <-- JPEG image
2170880       0x212000        Rising entropy edge (0.981137)
2179072       0x214000        Falling entropy edge (0.708192)
2363392       0x241000        Falling entropy edge (0.846409)
2426880       0x250800        Falling entropy edge (0.848443)
2496512       0x261800        Rising entropy edge (0.974327)
2510848       0x265000        Rising entropy edge (0.968564)
2525184       0x268800        Falling entropy edge (0.764579)
2529280       0x269800        Rising entropy edge (0.953455)
2533376       0x26A800        Falling entropy edge (0.717140)
2537472       0x26B800        Rising entropy edge (0.966682)
2543616       0x26D000        Rising entropy edge (0.953760)
2545664       0x26D800        Falling entropy edge (0.763122)
2588672       0x278000        Rising entropy edge (0.960725)
2592768       0x279000        Rising entropy edge (0.967902)
2603008       0x27B800        Rising entropy edge (0.966048)
2609152       0x27D000        Rising entropy edge (0.973450)
2617344       0x27F000        Falling entropy edge (0.749652)

There are some regions of high entropy, but nothing indicating LZMA compression.

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