I'm cross-comparing a few approaches to testing for binaries that import a symbol and I noticed a YARA rule not finding one in sudo that nm + grep could find.

I looked at it in xxd to figure out why, but couldn't find a match. This explains why the YARA rule misses, but leaves me with a new question: how are tools like nm or objdump discovering the symbol?

I checked other the other GLIBC symbols that nm reports to see how common this is, and found 5 symbols that didn't match in the output of xxd: execve exit getpgrp sleep textdomain. (I haven't yet manually verified whether any of the others only fail to match because they're split over a line break, but for this search I did run xxd at a width of 256 cols to minimize the likelihood).

I'm running something like:

nm --undefined $(type -p sudo)
xxd -c 40 $(type -p sudo)

Since this outputs a few thousand lines and there may be platform differences in the binary/commands, I went ahead made a GH repo for reference.

  • I initially posted a mangled copy of the log without realizing it; I've fixed it and updated the link as of a few minutes ago. – abathur Mar 15 at 22:42
  • how to get the binary in question? – Igor Skochinsky Mar 18 at 18:54
  • @IgorSkochinsky Not sure what you prefer. I put it in a repo so it would be easy to fork and poke at in CI, but I just now pushed a commit with a copy of the binary (github.com/abathur/sudo-make-sense/blob/main/sudo). If you have Nix installed running nix-shell -p sudo should open a shell with something equivalent on PATH. – abathur Mar 18 at 19:26
  • Thanks, the Mach-O format was the clue – Igor Skochinsky Mar 18 at 19:28
  • oof. sorry. I am sitting in front of both systems and forgot which I was on. It should be ELF. Gimme a few... – abathur Mar 18 at 19:30

The recent updates to the Mach-O format (the LC_DYLD_INFO_ONLY command) have an option of encoding the export symbol information as a trie structure. In such case it's possible that the symbol name does not appear as an exact string in the file.

However, ELF does not use such encoding so normally all symbols must be present as-is in the binary. What seems to happen in your case is that the "missing" symbols are substrings of other symbols with longer names, e.g.:

  • getpgrp is a suffix of tcgetpgrp
  • execve - of fexecve
  • exit - of _exit
  • textdomain - of bindtextdomain

There is no requirement that each symbol must be present as a separate string in the string table. The symbol record encodes an offset to a start of the string in string table and the dynamic linker simply uses the bytes until the next zero for matching. By reusing suffixes of other strings, the string table can be made smaller (often it is a huge contributor to the ELF file's size).

For example, here's the symbol entry for textdomain:

Elf64_Sym <offset aBindtextdomain+4 - offset unk_1DD0, 12h, 0, 0, \ ; "textdomain"
LOAD:0000000000000D38                            offset dword_0, 0>


LOAD:0000000000000D38                 dd offset aBindtextdomain+4 - offset unk_1DD0; st_name ; "textdomain"
LOAD:0000000000000D38                 db 12h                  ; st_info
LOAD:0000000000000D38                 db 0                    ; st_other
LOAD:0000000000000D38                 dw 0                    ; st_shndx
LOAD:0000000000000D38                 dq offset dword_0       ; st_value
LOAD:0000000000000D38                 dq 0                    ; st_size

As you can see, it points 4 bytes into the string for bindtextdomain. This is perfectly legal and is a common optimization in compilers.

Discussion with the patch which added the feature to GNU ld.

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