I was studying the code for x86-16 operating systems(como DOS),with a desassembler, but I can't find the intel manual on the intel website:

Searching on google, only unofficial sources.

Perhaps the manual is from 1979, and probably released in print, and they didn't want to have work releasing on the internet? Or removed from the site for convenience to encourage x86-32 and x86-64 assembly programming?

Supposed manual: Intel 8086 Family User's Manual October 1979.

  • You can find PDF copies of old Intel manuals here: bitsavers.org/components/intel (8086, 80186, etc.)
    – user33885
    Sep 25, 2020 at 0:30
  • There was no such thing as x86-16. That would have only made sense after the fact. It should be pretty trivial to source documentation for the processors that had what might now be retroactively called that as their instruction set. Sep 25, 2020 at 20:21

1 Answer 1


The Intel processors still support 16-bit real mode so the latest manuals do describe it as well, although not as prominently as protected or long mode. Look for mentions of “Real-Address or Virtual-8086 Mode”.

  • I know, but where are x86-16 manual? Sep 19, 2020 at 15:44
  • There’s no separate manual, real mode behavior is described in the common one.
    – Igor Skochinsky
    Sep 19, 2020 at 15:45
  • But existed right? Sep 19, 2020 at 16:05
  • 2
    There were specific manuals for 8086, 80186,80286 etc. But there was no “x86-16 manual”.
    – Igor Skochinsky
    Sep 19, 2020 at 16:33

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