1

I'm trying to apply some of the practices I learn in class and online and reverse engineer the firmware of a Chinese dash camera.

I've downloaded the firmware from their website (Smart dash camera: CA21L) and as a first step I tried to binwalk the firmware. The only "interesting" thing I found is a line which indicates that binwalk thinks there's a YAFFS filesystem embedded inside the file:

983141        0xF0065         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos"
1503088       0x16EF70        YAFFS filesystem
1637704       0x18FD48        JPEG image data, JFIF standard 1.02

Based on the offsets my guess is that there's a filesystem there. But I couldn't figure out how to mount/extract that because the output I got here is not really the same as for the most "firmware reversing tutorials" I've seen where you get "squashFS" and a compressed bootloader which binwalk clearly recognized. Here it seems that besides the small hint of the YAFFS, and a lot of strings indicating an eCos OS is running, I don't really know what to make of the rest of the output.

I'm turning here because maybe an experienced individual can shed some light on what I'm seeing from the output, how exactly I could extract the file system (if at all) and what does it mean that the system is running eCos (Yes I have googled it but the structure of it is still unclear).

The first few bytes of the firmware binary:

sh@desktop:~/Desktop/camera/smart$ file firmware.bin 
firmware.bin: data
sh@desktop:~/Desktop/camera/smart$ hd -v ./firmware.bin | head
00000000  00 04 00 80 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000030  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000050  4e 54 39 36 36 36 30 20  31 30 30 30 30 30 30 30  |NT96660 10000000|
00000060  32 30 31 30 30 37 30 31  20 7f 76 00 55 aa 67 f9  |20100701 .v.U.g.|
00000070  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000080  4c 44 3a 47 53 36 36 30  20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20  |LD:GS660        |
00000090  01 00 00 00 ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff 00 00 00 00  |................|

The full binwalk output:

sh@desktop:~/Desktop/camera/smart$ binwalk ./firmware.bin 

DECIMAL       HEXADECIMAL     DESCRIPTION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
148610        0x24482         Copyright string: "Copyright (c) 2014 Novatek Microelectronic Corp."
878029        0xD65CD         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos_Init must call first."
878119        0xD6627         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos."
879094        0xD69F6         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos_ChkValid"
879110        0xD6A06         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos_Close"
879126        0xD6A16         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos_Open"
879327        0xD6ADF         eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS\FW96660T.bin"
879431        0xD6B47         eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos bin"
879548        0xD6BBC         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos Utility"
879580        0xD6BDC         eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS\FW96660T.bin to start"
879623        0xD6C07         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos"
879676        0xD6C3C         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos"
880531        0xD6F93         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCosCmd_Open"
884656        0xD7FB0         CRC32 polynomial table, little endian
947150        0xE73CE         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos uncompress. Req: 0x%08X Bytes."
962042        0xEADFA         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCosReadEx"
962066        0xEAE12         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCosRead"
962863        0xEB12F         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos partition."
963011        0xEB1C3         eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS.BIN"
963168        0xEB260         eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos"
963181        0xEB26D         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos from EMB"
964861        0xEB8FD         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos"
969277        0xECA3D         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos FW bin..."
969370        0xECA9A         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos FW read failed %d"
969978        0xECCFA         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos form A:\"
970039        0xECD37         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos."
970511        0xECF0F         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos."
970576        0xECF50         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos."
970610        0xECF72         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos form Embedded Storage."
970693        0xECFC5         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos."
970730        0xECFEA         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos boot from temp all-in-one bin."
983121        0xF0051         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCosRun"
983141        0xF0065         eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos"
1503088       0x16EF70        YAFFS filesystem
1637704       0x18FD48        JPEG image data, JFIF standard 1.02
1637734       0x18FD66        TIFF image data, little-endian offset of first image directory: 8
1638058       0x18FEAA        JPEG image data, EXIF standard
1638070       0x18FEB6        TIFF image data, little-endian offset of first image directory: 8
1648972       0x19294C        JPEG image data, JFIF standard 1.02
1649002       0x19296A        TIFF image data, little-endian offset of first image directory: 8
1704134       0x1A00C6        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos#1.00.005_Dec  2 2015, 14:52:25_,REV"
3964736       0x3C7F40        XML document, version: "1.0"
3992008       0x3CE9C8        XML document, version: "1.0"
3992444       0x3CEB7C        XML document, version: "1.0"
3998494       0x3D031E        Unix path: /jenkins/jobs/C10/workspace/NT9666x_SDK/Project/DemoKit/SrcCode/UIApp/Network/WifiJsonFlow.c
4084725       0x3E53F5        MySQL MISAM index file Version 2
4085637       0x3E5785        MySQL MISAM index file Version 2
7122340       0x6CADA4        MySQL MISAM compressed data file Version 4
7162838       0x6D4BD6        Unix path: /15/20/24/25/30/48/50/60/120/240fps can be served..
7341779       0x7006D3        Unix path: /DCE_LUT/DCE_FOV/DCE_ENH/DCE_CA are updated
7555647       0x734A3F        Ubiquiti firmware header, third party, ~CRC32: 0x0, version: "ING_LOGO"
7642794       0x749EAA        VxWorks symbol table, big endian, first entry: [type: function, code address: 0x1000, symbol address: 0x500]
7766216       0x7680C8        eCos kernel exception handler, architecture: MIPSEL, exception vector table base address: 0x8F7D902C
7767176       0x768488        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOSDEMO_001_001"
7768111       0x76882F        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS#1.00.003_Nov 16 2015, 09:12:53_,REV"
9434103       0x8FF3F7        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos world!!!!!!!!!!"
9434178       0x8FF442        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos scheduling..."
9439624       0x900988        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-8189es-ap"
9440531       0x900D13        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos"
9441864       0x901248        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS"
9444932       0x901E44        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mempolt2.inl
9444952       0x901E58        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mempolt2.inl"
9444965       0x901E65        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mempolt2.inl"
9445112       0x901EF8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/malloc.cxx"
9445125       0x901F05        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/malloc.cxx"
9446048       0x9022A0        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/misc.cxx
9446068       0x9022B4        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/misc.cxx"
9446081       0x9022C1        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/misc.cxx"
9446244       0x902364        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/disk/v2_0_60/src/disk.c"
9446257       0x902371        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/disk/v2_0_60/src/disk.c"
9447564       0x90288C        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos does not support daemon option"
9450526       0x90341E        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos threads"
9457811       0x905093        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open failed"
9458055       0x905187        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_CmdLine"
9458075       0x90519B        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open"
9471668       0x9086B4        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/tcdiag.cxx
9471688       0x9086C8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/tcdiag.cxx"
9471701       0x9086D5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/tcdiag.cxx"
9472136       0x908888        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/smp.hxx
9472156       0x90889C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/smp.hxx"
9472169       0x9088A9        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/smp.hxx"
9472348       0x90895C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/thread.inl"
9472361       0x908969        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/thread.inl"
9472520       0x908A08        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/kapi.cxx"
9472533       0x908A15        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/kapi.cxx"
9473212       0x908CBC        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/thread.cxx"
9473225       0x908CC9        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/thread.cxx"
9474168       0x909078        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/except.cxx
9474188       0x90908C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/except.cxx"
9474201       0x909099        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/except.cxx"
9474568       0x909208        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/intr/intr.cxx"
9474581       0x909215        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/intr/intr.cxx"
9475288       0x9094D8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sched/mlqueue.cxx"
9475301       0x9094E5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sched/mlqueue.cxx"
9476040       0x9097C8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sched/sched.cxx"
9476053       0x9097D5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sched/sched.cxx"
9476844       0x909AEC        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/cnt_sem.cxx"
9476857       0x909AF9        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/cnt_sem.cxx"
9477032       0x909BA8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/flag.cxx"
9477045       0x909BB5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/flag.cxx"
9477420       0x909D2C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/mboxt2.inl"
9477433       0x909D39        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/kernel/mboxt2.inl"
9478044       0x909F9C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/mutex.cxx"
9478057       0x909FA9        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/sync/mutex.cxx"
9478852       0x90A2C4        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/dlmalloc.cxx
9478872       0x90A2D8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/dlmalloc.cxx"
9478885       0x90A2E5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/dlmalloc.cxx"
9480844       0x90AA8C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/stdiofiles.inl"
9480857       0x90AA99        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/stdiofiles.inl"
9481020       0x90AB3C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/stream.inl"
9481033       0x90AB49        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/stream.inl"
9481608       0x90AD88        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/streambuf.inl"
9481621       0x90AD95        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdio/streambuf.inl"
9481796       0x90AE44        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdio/v2_0_60/src/common/stream.cxx"
9481809       0x90AE51        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdio/v2_0_60/src/common/stream.cxx"
9485076       0x90BB14        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdlib/v2_0_60/src/getenv.cxx
9485096       0x90BB28        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdlib/v2_0_60/src/getenv.cxx"
9485109       0x90BB35        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdlib/v2_0_60/src/getenv.cxx"
9485396       0x90BC54        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/string/v2_0_60/src/strtok.cxx"
9485409       0x90BC61        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/string/v2_0_60/src/strtok.cxx"
9485592       0x90BD18        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/time/v2_0_60/src/strftime.cxx"
9485605       0x90BD25        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/time/v2_0_60/src/strftime.cxx"
9486484       0x90C094        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/time/v2_0_60/src/timeutil.cxx"
9486497       0x90C0A1        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/time/v2_0_60/src/timeutil.cxx"
9486612       0x90C114        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdlib/div.inl"
9486625       0x90C121        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/libc/stdlib/div.inl"
9490172       0x90CEFC        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/hal/mips/arch/v2_0_60/src/hal_misc.c"
9490185       0x90CF09        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/hal/mips/arch/v2_0_60/src/hal_misc.c"
9490300       0x90CF7C        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/pthread.cxx
9490320       0x90CF90        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/pthread.cxx"
9490333       0x90CF9D        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/pthread.cxx"
9490868       0x90D1B4        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/time.cxx"
9490881       0x90D1C1        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/time.cxx"
9491104       0x90D2A0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/signal.cxx"
9491117       0x90D2AD        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/posix/v2_0_60/src/signal.cxx"
9491432       0x90D3E8        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/file.cxx
9491452       0x90D3FC        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/file.cxx"
9491465       0x90D409        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/file.cxx"
9491852       0x90D58C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/dir.cxx"
9491865       0x90D599        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/fileio/v2_0_60/src/dir.cxx"
9492048       0x90D650        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/common/v2_0_60/src/dhcp_prot.c
9492068       0x90D664        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/common/v2_0_60/src/dhcp_prot.c"
9492081       0x90D671        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/common/v2_0_60/src/dhcp_prot.c"
9495328       0x90E320        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/support.c
9495348       0x90E334        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/support.c"
9495361       0x90E341        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/support.c"
9495407       0x90E36F        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/support.c"
9496188       0x90E67C        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos_node"
9496344       0x90E718        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/synch.c
9496364       0x90E72C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/synch.c"
9496377       0x90E739        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/synch.c"
9496423       0x90E767        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/synch.c"
9496712       0x90E888        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/timeout.c"
9496725       0x90E895        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/bsd_tcpip/v2_0_60/src/ecos/timeout.c"
9496771       0x90E8C3        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/timeout.c"
9502064       0x90FD70        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/uitron/v2_0_60/src/uit_ifnc.cxx
9502084       0x90FD84        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/uitron/v2_0_60/src/uit_ifnc.cxx"
9502097       0x90FD91        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/compat/uitron/v2_0_60/src/uit_ifnc.cxx"
9502996       0x910114        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/ns/dns/v2_0_60/src/dns.c
9503016       0x910128        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/ns/dns/v2_0_60/src/dns.c"
9503029       0x910135        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/net/ns/dns/v2_0_60/src/dns.c"
9503332       0x910264        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/clock.cxx
9503352       0x910278        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/clock.cxx"
9503365       0x910285        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/kernel/v2_0_60/src/common/clock.cxx"
9503952       0x9104D0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mfiximpl.inl"
9503965       0x9104DD        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mfiximpl.inl"
9504976       0x9108D0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/kapi.cxx"
9504989       0x9108DD        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/services/memalloc/common/v2_0_60/src/kapi.cxx"
9505136       0x910970        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/_exit.cxx"
9505149       0x91097D        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/_exit.cxx"
9505300       0x910A14        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/invokemain.cxx"
9505313       0x910A21        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/invokemain.cxx"
9505472       0x910AC0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/main.cxx"
9505485       0x910ACD        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/main.cxx"
9506128       0x910D50        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/eth/v2_0_60/src/net/eth_drv.c
9506148       0x910D64        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/eth/v2_0_60/src/net/eth_drv.c"
9506161       0x910D71        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/io/eth/v2_0_60/src/net/eth_drv.c"
9509540       0x911AA4        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mvarimpl.inl
9509560       0x911AB8        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mvarimpl.inl"
9509573       0x911AC5        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/configs/nt96660.uitron.cygwin_install/include/cyg/memalloc/mvarimpl.inl"
9510764       0x911F6C        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/atexit.cxx"
9510777       0x911F79        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/atexit.cxx"
9511328       0x9121A0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos p "
9512114       0x9124B2        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos=0x%x"
9515207       0x9130C7        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_CmdLine"
9515227       0x9130DB        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open"
9515247       0x9130EF        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Mount"
9515267       0x913103        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Umount"
9516040       0x913408        HTML document header
9517351       0x913927        HTML document footer
9519824       0x9142D0        HTML document header
9519933       0x91433D        HTML document footer
9519944       0x914348        HTML document header
9520064       0x9143C0        HTML document footer
9520480       0x914560        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos/1.0"
9523675       0x9151DB        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_CmdLine"
9523695       0x9151EF        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open"
9525414       0x9158A6        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_CmdLine"
9525438       0x9158BE        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open"
9547888       0x91B070        Base64 standard index table
9549256       0x91B5C8        Unix path: /cygdrive/d/Firmware/__svn/ecos-kit/ThirdParty/eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl
9549283       0x91B5E3        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-kit/ThirdParty/eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl"
9549303       0x91B5F7        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl"
9562672       0x91EA30        XML document, version: "1.0"
9565402       0x91F4DA        XML document, version: "1.0"
9565636       0x91F5C4        HTML document header
9565701       0x91F605        HTML document footer
9565872       0x91F6B0        Base64 standard index table
9566150       0x91F7C6        HTML document header
9566275       0x91F843        HTML document footer
9566556       0x91F95C        HTML document header
9566696       0x91F9E8        HTML document footer
9566708       0x91F9F4        HTML document header
9566738       0x91FA12        HTML document footer
9567232       0x91FC00        XML document, version: "1.0"
9568484       0x9200E4        SHA256 hash constants, little endian
9579171       0x922AA3        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_CmdLine"
9579191       0x922AB7        eCos RTOS string reference: "ECOS_Open"
9580100       0x922E44        Unix path: /home/pluswang/nova/project-ecos/project-ecos/ecos-rtl8189es/install/include/cyg/io/eth/rltk/819x/wrapper/skbuff.h
9580128       0x922E60        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/project-ecos/ecos-rtl8189es/install/include/cyg/io/eth/rltk/819x/wrapper/skbuff.h"
9580141       0x922E6D        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/ecos-rtl8189es/install/include/cyg/io/eth/rltk/819x/wrapper/skbuff.h"
9580146       0x922E72        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-rtl8189es/install/include/cyg/io/eth/rltk/819x/wrapper/skbuff.h"
9626164       0x92E234        Unix path: /cygdrive/d/Project/eCos/ecos-kit/ThirdParty/eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl
9626184       0x92E248        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos/ecos-kit/ThirdParty/eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl"
9626189       0x92E24D        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-kit/ThirdParty/eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl"
9626209       0x92E261        eCos RTOS string reference: "eCos/include/cyg/libc/time/time.inl"
9626400       0x92E320        PEM RSA private key
9626596       0x92E3E4        PEM certificate
9626700       0x92E44C        Private key in DER format (PKCS header length: 4, sequence length: 605
9628092       0x92E9BC        Unix path: /cygdrive/c/project-ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/pure.cxx
9628112       0x92E9D0        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/pure.cxx"
9628125       0x92E9DD        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/infra/v2_0_60/src/pure.cxx"
9628292       0x92EA84        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/abort.cxx"
9628305       0x92EA91        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/startup/v2_0_60/src/abort.cxx"
9628432       0x92EB10        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos/NT96660/ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdlib/v2_0_60/src/qsort.cxx"
9628445       0x92EB1D        eCos RTOS string reference: "ecos-2.0.6/packages/language/c/libc/stdlib/v2_0_60/src/qsort.cxx"
9644452       0x9329A4        HTML document header
9644572       0x932A1C        HTML document footer
9645052       0x932BFC        XML document, version: "1.0"

I also have a pretty good reason to believe the binary is not encrypted: enter image description here

Any guidance or direction to resources would be extremely helpful, thanks in advance.

  • You will need to manually confirm that the YAFFS signature match output by binwalk is not a false positive. You should look at a hex dump of the bytes in the area that the YAFFS signature was found to see if there really is a file system there. The MySQL MISAM signatures are definitely false positives. – julian Jan 26 at 21:22

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