The question is a bit hard to explain, so I go with an example.
Suppose the UFO crashed on Earth. The aliens are dead, but their on-board computer is intact. You were tasked to dump the computer's firmware and/or file system.
The computer turns on, sure, but you cannot hotwire/JTAG to it and try to dump its information because your Government thinks it is too risky. You are allowed to operate its OS and/or applications installed though
Suppose that its system is, to an extent, vulnerable to some of the discovered vulnerabilities, such as SQLi or what not. Is there a list/property of the vulnerabilities so that, if pentested for, can read but not overwrite the system? What first comes to my mind is LFI, but I believe there could be more of them