After some personal research I didn't find any possible way or a paper to explain how to determine what architecture a given piece of shellcode may targets. The only obvious way I found would be to disassemble it for various architectures and check for which one of those the assembly code makes any sense. But this way demands that an actual person has to study the assembly code every time. So is there any other way that we can use to be certain that a piece of shellcode targets a certain architecture? Thank you in advance!