Is there anything like PIN or DynamoRIO to instrument at Kernel level? The platforms I'm more interested on are Windows and OSX.
Tools like Qemu or Bochs are IMO pretty similar to DBI frameworks conceptually and they work on the entire system, including the kernel. Research efforts like BitBlaze and S2E have used modified versions of Qemu to trace kernel mode components for bug finding.
The key difference, I think, is that Qemu/Bochs as whole system emulators do not present a by default view of the program under inspection as a DBI does. A DBI allows for dynamic editing of the program by default. Emulators have the primitives required to effect DBI, they can read and write memory and by extension program code, but they do not provide the API that PIN does for program modification.
So the best I can do is, you can use Qemu to make a kernel mode DBI and others have done this, but I don't know of something more usable out of the box.