Is there any book or articles related to how C/C++ code is converted to assembly language, I mean common patterns for a specific compiler, etc?
I believe the best thing to do would be to learn about compilation in general and code generation in particular. The dragon book would be a good start. Then you can check Engineering a Compiler by Cooper & co.
About common compiler patterns, this would require a bit of extensive reverse engineering which, I believe, few people in the research and industrial community are ready to do/share. But, there's a guy named Agner Fog who does an extensive amount of benchmarking and analyzes the relationship of a compiler/code pattern with the underlying hardware architecture in terms of optimization. You can find his work here. What would be of interest to you is the Optimizing software in C++: An optimization guide for Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. It's simply a gold mine. Next, I would recommend : Optimizing subroutines in assembly language: An optimization guide for x86 platforms.
You can spend 5-10 years studying general theory of compilation, which will go forward during that time anyway, but if you need a reasonably quick compendium of current patterns for reference / quick training, use that book.