It sounds like the best tool for you might be Process Monitor. It can log all file-system writes, network events, and registry activity:
If you need to examine the details of the network traffic, Wireshark will let you capture and see all network communications:
These two tools should satisfy your ask for "a particular tool that tells me EVERYTHING an installer/executable does?". If, on the other hand, you need to see everything that an installer/executable could do, then you'd need to use a disassembler like IDA Pro to examine all possible code paths, but note that this is much more time-consuming and challenging than using the other two tools described above.