I don't think that it is possible.
Let's assume the following C code:
int f1(int p1, int p2)
int l1, l2, l3;
/* some code */
l1 = l1 + l2; // here is our virtual address
int f2(int p3, int p4)
int l4, l5, l6;
return f1(p3, p4);
int f3(int p5, p6)
int l7, l8;
return f2(p5, p6) + f1(p6, p5);
Obviously the set of local variables in whole the stack of this thread will be different when calling f3, f2 and f1.
For example when f3 calls f2 f2's locals are on stack. after call to f2 when f3 calls f1 obviously the whole threads stack is different and f2 locals are not alive and it is impossible to restore the full stack layout of callers without knowing the full execution sequence and stack trace.
Determining global variables, however, is simpler - they always alive and can be retrieved by iteration on all data and bss like elf segments with, for example, following simple code:
seg_list = [".bss", ".data"] #insert your segment names here
seg_addrs = 
for seg in Segments():
if idc.SegName(seg) in seg_list:
for seg in seg_addrs:
start = SegStart(seg)
end = SegEnd(seg)
for ea in idautils.Heads(start, end):
gen_xrefs = XrefsTo(ea, 0)
for xx in gen_xrefs:
print hex(ea), hex(xx.frm)
Everything which Ida recognizes as referenced will be printed out.
The accuracy of these results, however, is questionable and depends on accuracy of IDA analysis.
Function local variables and stack layout can be retrieved by getting the stack frame structure, with usage of the following APIs:
GetFrame(ea) #Get ID of function frame structure
GetFrameLvarSize(ea) #Get size of local variables in function frame
GetFrameRegsSize(ea) #Get size of saved registers in function frame
GetFrameArgsSize(ea) #Get size of arguments in function frame which are purged upon return
GetFrameSize(ea) #Get full size of function frame
The frame structure may be observed with the following IDAPython APIs from idc module:
GetMemberComment(sid, member_offset, repeatable)
Hope it helps.